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List and describe features and functions of cisco ios software

list and describe features and functions of cisco ios software

The core function of Cisco IOS is to enable data communications between network nodes. In addition to routing and switching, Cisco IOS offers. Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) is a family of network operating systems used on many Cisco Systems routers and current Cisco network switches. The IOS provides several important management features that are built into every Cisco router. These include configuration services that lower. CISCO WLC 5508 SOFTWARE UPGRADE PATH При заказе задаются вопросом, par Deux в размере ребенок дней после. Пышма - заказе выше. Перед выездом покупке детской одежды на сумму от доставки составит дней после.

In addition to routing and switching, Cisco IOS offers dozens of additional services that an administrator can use to improve the performance and security of network traffic. IOS is a package of routing, switching, internetworking and telecommunications functions integrated into a multitasking operating system. Cisco WebEx provides HD video conferencing for up to six participants at a time. Platform Compatibility and Data Protection. Convenient Virtual Meetings Anytime, Anywhere.

Integrated Communication. Sharing Desktops and Documents. IOS image files contain the system code that your router uses to function, that is, the image contains the IOS itself, plus various feature sets optional features or router-specific features. Telnet access — this type of access used to be a common way to access network devices. Telnet is an terminal emulation program that enables you to access IOS through the network and configure the device remotely.

Cisco owns the trademark for IOS, its core operating system used for nearly two decades. The company said that Cisco IOS software is the most widely leveraged network infrastructure software in the world, and is currently found on millions of active systems. Webex Meetings allow our clients to join from anywhere, includes video, and is easy to schedule. Webex Meetings Features 20 million reliable video conferences a month.

Free video calls and screen sharing with Webex. Screen share — free. Webex webinars are delivered reliably. Easily present online. Collaborate with your team. Information is a strategic asset that can make or break a company's fortunes in today's global economy. Computer internetworks are the electronic highways upon which that information travels and they unify the world to create new and better ways of doing business.

With so much at stake, an organization's internetwork must have the ability to increase the overall productivity of its people and resources. To do this, it can maximize the availability of applications while it minimizes the total cost of ownership. This means providing users with continual access to a flexible and reliable network. It also means keeping in check the expenses that an organization must absorb over time in order to develop and maintain its information systems and services.

No company in the world can match Cisco Systems when it comes to maximizing an internetwork's applications availability and minimizing its total cost of ownership. Over the last decade, our proven technology and wide range of scalable solutions have enabled us to set the pace in the internetworking industry. Cisco IOS is value-added software that resides at the heart of all Cisco internetworking solutions.

The Cisco IOS is Cisco's key to help make information-intensive companies all over the world more productive. And ultimately, that is the greatest benefit that any internetwork can provide. For more information on document conventions, refer to the Cisco Technical Tips Conventions. Just as a personal computer improves individual productivity, an efficient internetwork improves the productivity of large groups of people. And in the same way that a local area network LAN relies on a software-driven network operating system NOS to function, an internetwork depends on a sophisticated operating system also implemented in software to effectively connect users all over the world.

An internetwork's intelligence lies in its operating system. Network hardware inevitably changes every few years with the introduction of new generations of processors, switching, and memory components. But the internetwork's software is the unifying thread that connects otherwise disparate networks and provides a scalable migration path as needs evolve.

Just as enterprises invest in LAN network operating systems that can evolve as new hardware and applications are introduced, the Cisco IOS is a strategic investment that enables organizations to safeguard the future of their internetworks. Cisco IOS supports inevitable change and migration through its ability to integrate all evolving classes of network platforms.

This includes routers, ATM switches , LAN and WAN switches, file servers, intelligent hubs, personal computers and any other devices that have a strategic impact on an organization's internetwork. By powering Cisco platforms and those delivered by technology partners who incorporate Cisco IOS into their products, Cisco IOS enables companies to build and enhance a single, integrated, cost-effective information systems infrastructure. Today's multifaceted enterprise internetworks typically consist of four distinct sectors, each with its own specific mission:.

The core of the internetwork provides broad, reliable wide-area connections among all worldwide locations. Its focus is on cost-effective and efficient use of expensive WAN resources. The workgroup sector provides groups of end users with scalable bandwidth capable of meeting increasing application demands. The remote access sector serves remote locations, telecommuters, and mobile users with cost-effective, easily managed connectivity solutions.

The Cisco IOS spans the requirements of all these internetworking sectors to create a single, unified infrastructure that provides lower costs, higher applications availability, and improved internetwork management. Cisco IOS is the key differentiator that separates Cisco's internetworking solutions from other alternatives in the industry.

Its value-added intelligence supports users and applications throughout the entire enterprise and provides security and data integrity for the internetwork. The IOS cost-effectively manages resources by controlling and unifying complex, distributed network intelligence. Also, it functions as a flexible vehicle that can add new services, features, and applications to the internetwork. In the applications support arena, the Cisco IOS provides interoperability with more standards-based physical and logical protocol interfaces than any other internetwork supplier in the industry.

The Cisco IOS has continually set the pace in the industry for providing innovative, robust routing intelligence. Its reliable adaptive routing capabilities enhance productivity and applications availability by finding performance-optimal paths and quickly routing traffic around any network failures.

Reliable adaptive routing also reduces costs by efficiently using network bandwidth and resources while eliminating needless management of static routes. Policy-based IOS features, such as route filtering and routing information translatability, save network resources by preventing data from being unnecessarily broadcast to nodes that do not require it.

Priority output queuing and custom queuing grant priority to important sessions when network bandwidth is saturated.

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To scroll back, press Ctrl-B or the Left Arrow key repeatedly until you scroll back to the beginning of the command entry, or press Ctrl-A to return directly to the beginning of the line. In the following example, the access-list command entry extends beyond one line. When the cursor first reaches the end of the line, the line is shifted ten spaces to the left and redisplayed.

Each time the cursor reaches the end of the line, the line is again shifted ten spaces to the left. When you have completed the entry, press Ctrl-A to check the complete syntax before pressing the Return key to execute the command. If you have a different screen-width, use the terminal width user EXEC command to set the width of your terminal.

Use line wrapping in conjunction with the command history feature to recall and modify previous complex command entries. See the Recalling Commands section in this chapter for information about recalling previous command entries. Use any of the following keys or key combinations to delete command entries if you make a mistake or change your mind:. Delete or Backspace. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor. Ctrl - D. Ctrl - K. Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the command line.

Ctrl - U or Ctrl - X. Deletes all characters from the cursor to the beginning of the command line. Ctrl - W. Deletes the word to the left of the cursor. Esc , D. Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word. For cases where output continues beyond the bottom of the screen, such as with the output of many? To resume output, press the Return key to scroll down one line, or press the Spacebar to display the next full screen of output. If output is pausing on your screen, but you do not see the --More-- prompt, try entering a lower value for the screen length using the length line configuration command or the terminal length privileged EXEC mode command.

Command output will not be paused if the length value is set to zero. If you are entering a command and the system suddenly sends a message to your screen, you can easily recall your current command line entry. To redisplay the current command line refresh the screen , use either of the following key combinations:. Ctrl - L or Ctrl - R. If you have mistyped a command entry, you can transpose the mistyped characters. To transpose characters, use the following key combination:.

Ctrl - T. Transposes the character to the left of the cursor with the character located to the right of the cursor. You can capitalize or lowercase words or capitalize a set of letters with simple key sequences. To change the capitalization of commands, use any of the following key sequences:. Esc , C. Esc , L. Changes the word at the cursor to lowercase. Esc , U.

Capitalizes letters from the cursor to the end of the word. You can configure the system to recognize a particular keystroke key combination or sequence as command aliases. In other words, you can set a keystroke as a shortcut for executing a command. To enable the system to interpret a keystroke as a command, use the either of the following key combinations before entering the command sequence:. Configures the system to accept the following keystroke as a user-configured command entry rather than as an editing command.

The editing features described in the previous sections are automatically enabled on your system. However, there may be some unique situations that could warrant disabling these editing features. For example, you may have scripts that conflict with editing functionality. To globally disable editing features, use the following command in line configuration mode:. To disable the editing features for the current terminal session, use the following command in user EXEC mode:.

To reenable the editing features for the current terminal session, use the following command in user EXEC mode:. To reenable the editing features for a specific line, use the following command in line configuration mode:. The Cisco IOS CLI provides ways of searching through large amounts of command output and filtering output to exclude information you do not need.

These features are enabled for show and more commands, which generally display large amounts of data. Pressing Return displays the next line; pressing the Spacebar displays the next screen of output. In the following example, suppose you want to set the clock. Use context-sensitive help to determine the correct command syntax for setting the clock.

The help output shows that the set keyword is required. Determine the syntax for entering the time:. The system indicates that you need to provide additional arguments to complete the command. Press Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow to automatically repeat the previous command entry. Then add a space and question mark? To list the correct syntax, enter the command up to the point where the error occurred and then enter a question mark? Enter the year using the correct syntax and press Enter or Return to execute the command:.

The following is partial sample output from the more nvram:startup-config begin privileged EXEC mode command that begins unfiltered output with the first line that contains the regular expression ip. At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter to exclude output lines that contain the regular expression ip. The following is partial sample output of the more nvram:startup-config include privileged EXEC command. It only displays lines that contain the regular expression ip.

The following is partial sample output from the more nvram:startup-config exclude privileged EXEC command. It excludes lines that contain the regular expression service. At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter with the regular expression Dialer1. Specifying this filter resumes the output with the first line that contains Dialer1. The use of the keywords begin Fast Ethernet after the pipe begins unfiltered output with the first line that contains the regular expression Fast Ethernet.

At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter that displays only the lines that contain the regular expression Serial. The following is partial sample output from the show buffers exclude command. It excludes lines that contain the regular expression 0 misses.

At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a search that continues the filtered output beginning with the first line that contains Serial0. The use of the include is keywords after the pipe causes the command to display only lines that contain the regular expression is. The parenthesis force the inclusion of the spaces before and after is. At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a search that continues the filtered output beginning with the first line that contains Serial Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer.

Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content. PDF - Complete Book 3. Updated: March 2, To get help specific to a command mode, a command name, a keyword, or an argument, use any of the following commands: Command Purpose prompt help Displays a brief description of the help system. Lists commands in the current mode that begin with a particular character string.

Lists all commands available in the command mode. Lists the available syntax options arguments and keywords for the command. Lists the next available syntax option for the command. Entering the help command available in any command mode will provide the following description of the help system: Router help Help may be requested at any point in a command by entering a question mark '?

If nothing matches, the help list will be empty and you must back up until entering a '? Two styles of help are provided: 1. Full help is available when you are ready to enter a command argument e. Partial help is provided when an abbreviated argument is entered and you want to know what arguments match the input e. Router co? However, the configure command is a special case, because the CLI will prompt you for the missing syntax: Router configure Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]?

Router config The default response for the? Enter the access-list command followed by a space and a question mark to list the available options for the command: Router config access-list? Enter the access list number 99 and then enter another question mark to see the arguments that apply to the keyword and brief explanations: Router config access-list 99?

D Address to match Generally, uppercase letters represent variables arguments. Using the no and default Forms of Commands Almost every configuration command has a no form. Table 1. Esc , B B ack word Moves the cursor back one word. Esc , F F orward word Moves the cursor forward one word.

Ctrl - A Beginning of line Moves the cursor to the beginning of the line. Ctrl - E E nd of line Moves the cursor to the end of the command line. Completing a Partial Command Name If you cannot remember a complete command name, or if you want to reduce the amount of typing you have to perform, enter the first few letters of the command, then press the Tab key. To recall these items and paste them in the command line, use the following key combinations: Keystrokes Purpose Ctrl - Y Recalls the most recent entry in the buffer press keys simultaneously.

Esc , Y Recalls the previous entry in the history buffer press keys sequentially. Router config access-list permit tcp Deleting Entries Use any of the following keys or key combinations to delete command entries if you make a mistake or change your mind: Keystrokes Purpose Delete or Backspace Deletes the character to the left of the cursor.

Ctrl - D Deletes the character at the cursor. Ctrl - K Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the command line. Ctrl - U or Ctrl - X Deletes all characters from the cursor to the beginning of the command line. Ctrl - W Deletes the word to the left of the cursor. Esc , D Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word. Tip If output is pausing on your screen, but you do not see the --More-- prompt, try entering a lower value for the screen length using the length line configuration command or the terminal length privileged EXEC mode command.

Redisplaying the Current Command Line If you are entering a command and the system suddenly sends a message to your screen, you can easily recall your current command line entry. To redisplay the current command line refresh the screen , use either of the following key combinations: Keystrokes Purpose Ctrl - L or Ctrl - R Redisplays the current command line. Transposing Mistyped Characters If you have mistyped a command entry, you can transpose the mistyped characters.

To transpose characters, use the following key combination: Keystrokes Purpose Ctrl - T Transposes the character to the left of the cursor with the character located to the right of the cursor. Controlling Capitalization You can capitalize or lowercase words or capitalize a set of letters with simple key sequences. To change the capitalization of commands, use any of the following key sequences: Keystrokes Purpose Esc , C Capitalizes the letter at the cursor.

Esc , L Changes the word at the cursor to lowercase. Esc , U Capitalizes letters from the cursor to the end of the word. Designating a Keystroke as a Command Entry You can configure the system to recognize a particular keystroke key combination or sequence as command aliases. To enable the system to interpret a keystroke as a command, use the either of the following key combinations before entering the command sequence: Keystrokes Purpose Ctrl - V or Esc , Q Configures the system to accept the following keystroke as a user-configured command entry rather than as an editing command.

Disabling and Reenabling Editing Features The editing features described in the previous sections are automatically enabled on your system. To globally disable editing features, use the following command in line configuration mode: Command Purpose Router config-line no editing Disables CLI editing features for a particular line. To disable the editing features for the current terminal session, use the following command in user EXEC mode: Command Purpose Router no terminal editing Disables CLI editing features for the local line.

To reenable the editing features for the current terminal session, use the following command in user EXEC mode: Command Purpose Router terminal editing Enables the CLI editing features for the current terminal session. To reenable the editing features for a specific line, use the following command in line configuration mode: Command Purpose Router config-line editing Enables the CLI editing features.

Router clock? Determine the syntax for entering the time: Router clock set? Router more nvram:startup-config begin ip address-family ipv4 exit-address-family! Router more nvram:startup-config include ip ip subnet-zero ip domain-name cisco. Router more nvram:startup-config exclude service! Serial1 is up, line protocol is up Serial2 is up, line protocol is up Serial3 is up, line protocol is down Serial4 is down, line protocol is down Serial5 is up, line protocol is up Serial6 is up, line protocol is up Serial7 is up, line protocol is up The following is partial sample output from the show buffers exclude command.

Router show buffers exclude 0 misses Buffer elements: in free list max allowed Public buffer pools: Small buffers, bytes total 50, permanent 50 : 50 in free list 20 min, max allowed hits, 3 misses, 0 trims, 0 created Big buffers, bytes total 50, permanent 50 : 49 in free list 5 min, max allowed Very Big buffers, bytes total 10, permanent 10 :.

Serial0 buffers, bytes total 64, permanent 64 : 16 in free list 0 min, 64 max allowed 48 hits, 0 fallbacks The following is partial sample output from the show interface include user EXEC or privileged EXEC command mode.

Was this Document Helpful? To disable IP routing, use the no ip routing form of the ip routing command. To reenable it, use the plain ip routing form. The Cisco IOS software command reference publications describe the function of the no form of the command whenever a no form is available. Many CLI commands also have a default form. By issuing the default command-name command, you can configure the command to its default setting.

The Cisco IOS software command reference documents generally describe the function of the default form of the command when the default form performs a different function than the plain and no forms of the command. To see what default commands are available on your system, enter default? This feature is particularly useful for recalling long or complex commands or entries, including access lists. To use the command history feature, perform any of the tasks described in the following sections:.

By default, the system records ten command lines in its history buffer. To set the number of command lines that the system will record during the current terminal session, use the following command in privileged EXEC mode:. Router terminal history [ size number-of-lines ]. The no terminal history size command resets the number of lines saved in the history buffer to the default of ten lines.

To configure the number of command lines the system will record for all sessions on a particular line, use the following command in privileged EXEC mode:. Router config-line history [ size number-of-lines ]. To recall commands from the history buffer, use one of the following commands or key combinations:. Ctrl - P or the Up Arrow key. Recalls commands in the history buffer, beginning with the most recent command.

Repeat the key sequence to recall successively older commands. Ctrl - N or the Down Arrow key. Returns to more recent commands in the history buffer after recalling commands with Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow key. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively more recent commands. The command history feature is automatically enabled. To disable it during the current terminal session, use the following command in user EXEC mode:.

To configure a specific line so that the command history feature is disabled, use the following command privileged EXEC mode:. The following subsections describe these features:. Table 2 shows the key combinations or sequences you can use to move the cursor on the command line to make corrections or changes.

Ctrl indicates the Control key, which must be pressed simultaneously with its associated letter key. Esc indicates the Escape key, which must be pressed first, followed by its associated letter key. Keys are not case sensitive. Many letters used for CLI navigation and editing were chosen to provide an easy way of remembering their functions.

In Table 2 characters are bolded in the "Function Summary" column to indicate the relation between the letter used and the function. Left Arrow or Ctrl - B. Moves the cursor one character to the left. When you enter a command that extends beyond a single line, you can press the Left Arrow or Ctrl-B keys repeatedly to scroll back toward the system prompt and verify the beginning of the command entry, or you can press the Ctrl-A key combination.

Right Arrow or Ctrl - F. If you cannot remember a complete command name, or if you want to reduce the amount of typing you have to perform, enter the first few letters of the command, then press the Tab key. The command line parser will complete the command if the string entered is unique to the command mode. If your keyboard does not have a Tab key, press Ctrl - I instead.

The CLI will recognize a command once you have entered enough characters to make the command unique. For example, if you enter conf in privileged EXEC mode, the CLI will be able to associate your entry with the configure command, because only the configure command begins with conf. When you use the command completion feature the CLI displays the full command name. The command is not executed until you use the Return or Enter key.

This way you can modify the command if the full command was not what you intended by the abbreviation. If you enter a set of characters that could indicate more than one command, the system beeps to indicate that the text string is not unique. If the CLI cannot complete the command, enter a question mark? Do not leave a space between the last letter you enter and the question mark? For example, entering co? Note that the characters you enter before the question mark appear on the screen to allow you to complete the command entry.

Use any of the following keys or key combinations to delete command entries if you make a mistake or change your mind:. Ctrl - U or Ctrl - X. The CLI stores commands or keywords that you delete in a history buffer. Only character strings that begin or end with a space are stored in the buffer; individual characters that you delete using Backspace or Ctrl-D are not stored. To recall these items and paste them in the command line, use the following key combinations:. Note that the Esc, Y key sequence will not function unless you press the Ctrl-Y key combination first.

If you press Esc, Y more than ten times, you will cycle back to the most recent entry in the buffer. The CLI provides a wrap-around feature for commands that extend beyond a single line on the screen. When the cursor reaches the right margin, the command line shifts ten spaces to the left.

You cannot see the first ten characters of the line, but you can scroll back and check the syntax at the beginning of the command. To scroll back, press Ctrl-B or the Left Arrow key repeatedly until you scroll back to the beginning of the command entry, or press Ctrl-A to return directly to the beginning of the line. In the following example, the access-list command entry extends beyond one line.

When the cursor first reaches the end of the line, the line is shifted ten spaces to the left and redisplayed. Each time the cursor reaches the end of the line, the line is again shifted ten spaces to the left. When you have completed the entry, press Ctrl-A to check the complete syntax before pressing the Return key to execute the command. The Cisco IOS software defaults to a terminal screen that is 80 columns wide. If you have a different screen width, use the terminal width command in user EXEC mode to set the width of your terminal.

Use line wrapping in conjunction with the command history feature to recall and modify previous complex command entries. See the "Recalling Commands" section in this chapter for information about recalling previous command entries. For cases where output continues beyond the bottom of the screen, such as with the output of many? To resume output, press the Return key to scroll down one line, or press the Spacebar to display the next full screen of output. Tip If output is pausing on your screen, but you do not see the --More-- prompt, try entering a lower value for the screen length using the length command in line configuration mode or the terminal length command in privileged EXEC mode.

Command output will not be paused if the length value is set to zero. If you are entering a command and the system suddenly sends a message to your screen, you can easily recall your current command line entry. To redisplay the current command line refresh the screen , use either of the following key combinations:. Ctrl - L or Ctrl - R.

If you have mistyped a command entry, you can transpose the mistyped characters. To transpose characters, use the following key combination:. Transposes the character to the left of the cursor with the character located to the right of the cursor. You can capitalize or lowercase words or capitalize a set of letters with simple key sequences.

Note, however, that Cisco IOS commands are generally case-insensitive, and are typically all in lowercase. To change the capitalization of commands, use any of the following key sequences:. You can configure the system to recognize a particular keystroke key combination or sequence as command aliases.

In other words, you can set a keystroke as a shortcut for executing a command. To enable the system to interpret a keystroke as a command, use the either of the following key combinations before entering the command sequence:. Configures the system to accept the following keystroke as a user-configured command entry rather than as an editing command. However, there may be some unique situations that could warrant disabling these editing features.

For example, you may have scripts that conflict with editing functionality. To globally disable editing features, use the following command in line configuration mode:. To disable the editing features for the current terminal session, use the following command in user EXEC mode:.

To reenable the editing features for the current terminal session, use the following command in user EXEC mode:. To reenable the editing features for a specific line, use the following command user EXEC mode:. The Cisco IOS CLI provides ways of searching through large amounts of command output and filtering output to exclude information you do not need. These features are enabled for show and more commands, which generally display large amounts of data. Pressing Return displays the next line; pressing the Spacebar displays the next screen of output.

A regular expression is a pattern a phrase, number, or more complex pattern the CLI String Search feature matches against show or more command output. Regular expressions are case-sensitive and allow for complex matching requirements. Simple regular expressions include entries like Serial, misses, or Complex regular expressions include entries like A regular expression can be a single-character pattern or a multiple-character pattern.

That is, a regular expression can be a single character that matches the same single character in the command output or multiple characters that match the same multiple characters in the command output. The pattern in the command output is referred to as a string. This section describes creating both single-character patterns and multiple-character patterns.

It also discusses creating more complex regular expressions using multipliers, alternation, anchoring, and parentheses. The simplest regular expression is a single character that matches the same single character in the command output. You can use any letter A-Z, a-z or digit as a single-character pattern.

You can also use other keyboard characters such as! Table 3 lists the keyboard characters that have special meaning. The following examples are single-character patterns matching a dollar sign, an underscore, and a plus sign, respectively. You can specify a range of single-character patterns to match against command output. For example, you can create a regular expression that matches a string containing one of the following letters: a, e, i, o, or u.

Only one of these characters must exist in the string for pattern matching to succeed. To specify a range of single-character patterns, enclose the single-character patterns in square brackets [ ]. For example, [aeiou] matches any one of the five vowels of the lowercase alphabet, while [abcdABCD] matches any one of the first four letters of the lower- or uppercase alphabet.

You can simplify ranges by entering only the endpoints of the range separated by a dash -. Simplify the previous range as follows:. To add a dash as a single-character pattern in your range, include another dash and precede it with a backslash:. You can also include a right square bracket ] as a single-character pattern in your range, as shown here:.

The previous example matches any one of the first four letters of the lower- or uppercase alphabet, a dash, or a right square bracket. The following example matches any letter except the ones listed:. The following example matches anything except a right square bracket ] or the letter d:. When creating regular expressions, you can also specify a pattern containing multiple characters.

You create multiple-character regular expressions by joining letters, digits, or keyboard characters that do not have special meaning. Insert a backslash before the keyboard characters that have special meaning when you want to indicate that the character should be interpreted literally. With multiple-character patterns, order is important. The multiple-character regular expression a. With this example, the strings ab, a!

You can remove the special meaning of the period character by inserting a backslash before it. You can create a multiple-character regular expression containing all letters, all digits, all keyboard characters, or a combination of letters, digits, and other keyboard characters.

For example, telebit v32bis is a valid regular expression. You can create more complex regular expressions that instruct Cisco IOS software to match multiple occurrences of a specified regular expression.

To do so, you use some special characters with your single-character and multiple-character patterns. Table 4 lists the special characters that specify "multiples" of a regular expression. Matches 0 or 1 occurrences of a single-character or multiple-character pattern. The following example matches any number of occurrences of the letter a, including none:.

The following pattern requires that at least one letter a be in the string to be matched:. To use multipliers with multiple-character patterns, you enclose the pattern in parentheses. In the following example, the pattern matches any number of the multiple-character string ab:.

As a more complex example, the following pattern matches one or more instances of alphanumeric pairs, but not none that is, an empty string is not a match :. Nested constructs are matched from outside to inside. Concatenated constructs are matched beginning at the left side of the construct. Thus, the regular expression matches A9b3, but not 9Ab3 because the letters are specified before the numbers.

Alternation allows you to specify alternative patterns to match against a string. You separate the alternative patterns with a vertical bar. Exactly one of the alternatives can match the string. For example, the regular expression codex telebit matches the string codex or the string telebit, but not both codex and telebit.

You can instruct Cisco IOS software to match a regular expression pattern against the beginning or the end of the string. That is, you can specify that the beginning or end of a string contain a specific pattern. You "anchor" these regular expressions to a portion of the string using the special characters shown in Table 5. With the underscore character, you can specify that a pattern exist anywhere in the string. The string can be preceded by or end with a space, brace, comma, or underscore.

Using the underscore character, you can replace long regular expression lists. As shown in the "Multipliers" section, you use parentheses with multiple-character regular expressions to multiply the occurrence of a pattern. You can also use parentheses around a single- or multiple-character pattern to instruct the Cisco IOS software to remember a pattern for use elsewhere in the regular expression.

The number specifies the occurrence of a parentheses in the regular expression pattern. This regular expression matches an a followed by any character call it character no. So, the regular expression can match aZbcTZT. The software remembers that character number 1 is Z and character number 2 is T and then uses Z and T again later in the regular expression.

To search show command output, use the following command in privileged EXEC mode:. Router show any-command begin regular-expression. Begins unfiltered output of the show command with the first line that contains the regular expression. Note Cisco IOS documentation generally uses the vertical bar to indicate a choice of syntax. However, to search the output of show and more commands, you will need to enter the pipe character the vertical bar.

In this section the pipe appears in bold to indicate that you should enter this character. To filter show command output, use one of the following commands in privileged EXEC mode:. Router show any-command exclude regular-expression. Router show any-command include regular-expression. On most systems you can enter the Ctrl-Z key combination at any time to interrupt the output and return to privileged EXEC mode.

For example, you can enter the show running-config begin hostname command to start the display of the running configuration file at the line containing the hostname setting, then use Ctrl-Z when you get to the end of the information you are interested in. Note Characters followed by an exclamation mark! You can search more commands the same way you search show commands more commands perform the same function as show commands.

To search more command output, use the following command in user EXEC mode:. Router more any-command begin regular-expression. Begins unfiltered output of a more command with the first line that contains the regular expression. You can filter more commands the same way you filter show commands. To filter more command output, use one of the following commands in user EXEC mode:. Router more any-command exclude regular-expression.

Router more any-command include regular-expression. You can search output from --More-- prompts. To search show or more command output from a --More-- prompt, use the following command in user EXEC mode:. Begins unfiltered output with the first line that contains the regular expression. You can filter output from --More-- prompts. However, you can specify only one filter for each command.

The filter remains until the show or more command output finishes or until you interrupt the output using Ctrl-Z or Ctrl Therefore, you cannot add a second filter at a --More-- prompt if you already specified a filter at the original command or at a previous --More--prompt. Note Searching and filtering are different functions. You can search command output using the begin keyword and specify a filter at the --More-- prompt for the same command.

To filter show or more command output at a --More-- prompt, use one of the following commands in user EXEC mode:. In the following example, suppose you want to set the clock. Use context-sensitive help to determine the correct command syntax for setting the clock.

The help output shows that the set keyword is required. Determine the syntax for entering the time:. The system indicates that you need to provide additional arguments to complete the command. Press Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow to automatically repeat the previous command entry.

Then add a space and question mark? To list the correct syntax, enter the command up to the point where the error occurred and then enter a question mark? Enter the year using the correct syntax and press Enter or Return to execute the command:. The following is partial sample output from the more nvram:startup-config begin privileged EXEC mode command that begins unfiltered output with the first line that contains the regular expression ip.

At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter to exclude output lines that contain the regular expression ip. The following is partial sample output of the more nvram:startup-config include command. It only displays lines that contain the regular expression ip. The following is partial sample output from the more nvram:startup-config exclude command. It excludes lines that contain the regular expression service.

At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter with the regular expression Dialer1. Specifying this filter resumes the output with the first line that contains Dialer1. The following is partial sample output from the show interface command with an output search specified. The use of the keywords begin Ethernet after the pipe begins unfiltered output with the first line that contains the regular expression Ethernet.

At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter that displays only the lines that contain the regular expression Serial. The following is partial sample output from the show buffers exclude command. It excludes lines that contain the regular expression 0 misses. At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a search that continues the filtered output beginning with the first line that contains Serial0.

The following is partial sample output from the show interface include command. The use of the include is keywords after the pipe causes the command to display only lines that contain the regular expression is. The parenthesis force the inclusion of the spaces before and after is. Use of the parenthesis ensures that only lines containing is with a space both before and after it will be included in the output excluding from the search, for example, words like "disconnect".

At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a search that continues the filtered output beginning with the first line that contains Serial Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content. PDF - Complete Book 3. Updated: February 12, Lists the user EXEC commands. Global Configuration Mode The term "global" is used to indicate characteristics or features that affect the system as a whole.

The following example shows the process of entering global configuration mode from privileged EXEC mode: Router configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. Router config Note that the system prompt changes to indicate that you are now in global configuration mode. Router config exit Exits the current command mode and returns to the preceding mode.

Interface Configuration Mode One example of a specific configuration mode you enter from global configuration mode is interface configuration mode. To access and list the interface configuration commands, use the following command: Command Purpose Router config interface type number Specifies the interface to be configured, and enters interface configuration mode. Router config interface serial 0 Router config-if To exit interface configuration mode and return to global configuration mode, enter the exit command.

Subinterface Configuration Mode From interface configuration mode, you can enter subinterface configuration mode. To access subinterface configuration mode, use the following command in interface configuration mode: Command Purpose Router config-if interface type number Specifies the virtual interface to be configured and enters subinterface configuration mode. Router config interface serial 2 Router config-if encapsulation frame-relay Router config-if interface serial 2.

Modifiers may be R register or S byte swap. Interface configuration From global configuration mode, enter by specifying an interface with an interface command. Router config-if To exit to global configuration mode, use the exit command. Subinterface configuration From interface configuration mode, specify a subinterface with an interface command.

Router config-subif To exit to global configuration mode, use the exit command. To get help specific to a command mode, a command name, a keyword, or an argument, use any of the following commands: Command Purpose prompt help Displays a brief description of the help system.

Lists all commands available in the command mode. Lists the available syntax options arguments and keywords for the command. Lists the next available syntax option for the command. Entering the help command available in any command mode will provide the following description of the help system: Router help Help may be requested at any point in a command by entering a question mark '?

If nothing matches, the help list will be empty and you must back up until entering a '? Two styles of help are provided: 1. Full help is available when you are ready to enter a command argument e. Partial help is provided when an abbreviated argument is entered and you want to know what arguments match the input e. Router co? However, the configure command is a special case, because the CLI will prompt you for the missing syntax: Router configure Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]?

Router config The default response for the? Enter the access-list command followed by a space and a question mark to list the available options for the command: Router config access-list? Enter the access list number 99 and then enter another question mark to see the arguments that apply to the keyword and brief explanations: Router config access-list 99?

D Address to match Generally, uppercase letters represent variables arguments. To set the number of command lines that the system will record during the current terminal session, use the following command in privileged EXEC mode: Command Purpose Router terminal history [ size number-of-lines ] Enables the command history feature for the current terminal session. To configure the number of command lines the system will record for all sessions on a particular line, use the following command in privileged EXEC mode: Command Purpose Router config-line history [ size number-of-lines ] Enables the command history feature.

Disabling the Command History Feature The command history feature is automatically enabled. To configure a specific line so that the command history feature is disabled, use the following command privileged EXEC mode: Command Purpose Router config-line no history Disables command history for the line. Esc , B B ack word Moves the cursor back one word. Esc , F F orward word Moves the cursor forward one word. Ctrl - A Beginning of line Moves the cursor to the beginning of the line.

Ctrl - E E nd of line Moves the cursor to the end of the command line. Completing a Partial Command Name If you cannot remember a complete command name, or if you want to reduce the amount of typing you have to perform, enter the first few letters of the command, then press the Tab key. Deleting Entries Use any of the following keys or key combinations to delete command entries if you make a mistake or change your mind: Keystrokes Purpose Delete or Backspace Deletes the character to the left of the cursor.

Ctrl - D Deletes the character at the cursor. Ctrl - K Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the command line. Ctrl - U or Ctrl - X Deletes all characters from the cursor to the beginning of the command line. Ctrl - W Deletes the word to the left of the cursor. Esc , D Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word. To recall these items and paste them in the command line, use the following key combinations: Keystrokes Purpose Ctrl - Y Recalls the most recent entry in the buffer press keys simultaneously.

Esc , Y Recalls the previous entry in the history buffer press keys sequentially. Router config access-list permit tcp Redisplaying the Current Command Line If you are entering a command and the system suddenly sends a message to your screen, you can easily recall your current command line entry. To redisplay the current command line refresh the screen , use either of the following key combinations: Keystrokes Purpose Ctrl - L or Ctrl - R Redisplays the current command line.

Transposing Mistyped Characters If you have mistyped a command entry, you can transpose the mistyped characters. To transpose characters, use the following key combination: Keystrokes Purpose Ctrl - T Transposes the character to the left of the cursor with the character located to the right of the cursor. Controlling Capitalization You can capitalize or lowercase words or capitalize a set of letters with simple key sequences.

To change the capitalization of commands, use any of the following key sequences: Keystrokes Purpose Esc , C Capitalizes the letter at the cursor.

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