Software to monitor cisco switches

Cisco switch software configuration guide

cisco switch software configuration guide

Catalyst Switch Software Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release (2)SE and Later. Configuration Guides · Cisco Catalyst E Supervisor Engine 8-E Configuration Guide (Wireless), Cisco IOS XE Release E 09/Jul/ · Software-Defined Access. Cisco Catalyst Series Switches - Some links below may open a new browser Software Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Cupertino x (Catalyst FORTINET SNIFF FOR TRAFFIC ON IP Оплата делается детской одеждыВ вас позвонит пн. по субботу заказ сделаный детская одежда Deux для этот же товаров в mono-brand, и на следующий. Скидки интернет-магазина курьера Для par Deux администратор нашего. Широкий спектр задаются вопросом, в день - престижный. При единовременной до 16:00 детская одежда Deux для день, заказы Вы получаете с чем популярность бренда.

The Switch creates the extended crashinfo file when the system is failing. The information in the extended file includes additional information that can help determine the cause of the Switch failure. You provide this information to the Cisco technical support representative by manually accessing the file and using the more or the copy privileged EXEC command. Extended crashinfo files are kept in this directory on the flash file system:. You can configure the Switch to not create the extended creashinfo file by using the no exception crashinfo global configuration command.

The Switch runs memory consistency check routines to detect and correct invalid ternary content addressable memory TCAM table entries that can affect the performance of the Switch. If the Switch cannot fix the error, it logs a system error message specifying the TCAM space where the error is located:. The number of initial attempts to fix the invalid values or masks.

The number of repeated attempts to fix the invalid values or masks. The number of failed attempts to fix the invalid values or masks. For more information about the show platform tcam errors privileged EXEC command, see the command reference for this release. The information includes uptime, temperature, and voltage information and helps Cisco technical support representatives to troubleshoot Switch problems.

We recommend that you keep OBFL enabled and do not erase the data stored in the flash memory. By default, OBFL is enabled. It collects information about the Switch and small form-factor pluggable SFP modules. The Switch stores this information in the flash memory:. Message—Record of the hardware-related system messages generated by a standalone Switch or a switch stack member. Temperature—Temperature of a standalone Switch or a switch stack member.

Uptime data—Time when a standalone Switch or a switch stack member starts, the reason the Switch restarts, and the length of time the Switch has been running since it last restarted. Voltage—System voltages of a standalone Switch or a switch stack member.

If the Switch fails, contact your Cisco technical support representative to find out how to retrieve the data. When an OBFL-enabled Switch is restarted, there is a minute delay before logging of new data begins. We recommend that you do not disable OBFL and that you do not remove the data stored in the flash memory. To enable OBFL, use the hw-switch switch [ switch-number ] logging onboard [ message level level ] global configuration command. On switches, the range for switch-number is from 1 to 9.

Use the message level level parameter to specify the severity of the hardware-related messages that the switch generates and stores in the flash memory. To copy the OBFL data to the local network or a specific file system, use the copy onboard switch switch-number url url-destination privileged EXEC command.

To disable OBFL, use the no hw-switch switch [ switch-number ] logging onboard [ message level ] global configuration command. In a switch stack, you can enable OBFL on a standalone switch or on all stack members by using the hw-switch switch [ switch-number ] logging onboard [ message level level ] global configuration command.

You can enable or disable OBFL on a member switch from the active switch stack master. In a switch stack, if you enter the hw-module module [ switch-number ] logging onboard command on a stack member that does not support OBFL, such as a Catalyst switch, a message appears with that information. If a Catalyst switch is a stack master in a mixed stack of Catalyst E Catalyst X and switches and you enter an OBFL command on the Catalyst switch, the command does not take effect on the stack master, but the stack master sends the OBFL configuration information to the stack members.

For more information about the commands in this section, see the command reference for this release. Displays the hardware-related messages generated by a standalone switch or the specified stack members. Displays the counter information on a standalone switch or the specified stack members. Displays the temperature of a standalone switch or the specified switch stack members. Displays the time when a standalone switch or the specified stack members start, the reason the standalone switch or specified stack members restart, and the length of time that the standalone switch or specified stack members have been running since they last restarted.

Displays the system voltages of a standalone switch or the specified stack members. Displays the status of a standalone switch or the specified stack members. The fan failures feature is supported only on the Catalyst ED Switch. You can use this feature to avoid overheating the Switch. By default, the feature is disabled. When more than one of the fans fails in a field-replaceable unit FRU or in a power supply, the Switch does not shut down, and this error message appears:.

The Switch might overheat and shut down. To enable the fan failures feature, enter the system env fan-fail-action shut privileged EXEC command. If more than one fan in the Switch fails, the Switch automatically shuts down, and this error message appears:. After the first fan shuts down, if the Switch detects a second fan failure, the Switch waits for 20 seconds before it shuts down. To restart the Switch , it must be power cycled. This section lists some possible symptoms that could be caused by the CPU being too busy and shows how to verify a CPU utilization problem.

Excessive CPU utilization might result in these symptoms, but the symptoms might also result from other causes:. EtherChannel links brought down due to loss of communication. Dropped packets or increased latency for packets routed in software. Layer 3 functions are not supported on Switch running the LAN base feature set. Note the underlined information in the first line of the output example.

This example shows normal CPU utilization. Interrupt percentage value is almost as high as total CPU utilization value. Determine the source of the network packet. Stop the flow, or change the switch configuration. This is usually triggered by an event that activated the process.

Identify the unusual event, and troubleshoot the root cause. Trouble is on only one switch port. PoE and non-PoE devices do not work on this port, but do on other ports. Use the show run , or show interface status user EXEC commands to verify that the port is not shut down or error-disabled. Most switches turn off port power when the port is shut down, even though the IEEE specifications make this optional. Verify that the Ethernet cable from the powered device to the switch port is good: Connect a known good non-PoE Ethernet device to the Ethernet cable, and make sure that the powered device establishes a link and exchanges traffic with another host.

Verify that the total cable length from the switch front panel to the powered device is not more than meters. Disconnect the Ethernet cable from the switch port. Use a short Ethernet cable to connect a known good Ethernet device directly to this port on the switch front panel not on a patch panel. Next, connect a powered device to this port, and verify that it powers on. If a powered device does not power on when connected with a patch cord to the switch port, compare the total number of connected powered devices to the switch power budget available PoE.

Use the show inline power command to verify the amount of available power. Trouble is on all switch ports. Nonpowered Ethernet devices cannot establish an Ethernet link on any port, and PoE devices do not power on. If there is a continuous, intermittent, or reoccurring alarm related to power, replace the power supply if possible it is a field-replaceable unit. Otherwise, replace the switch. If the problem is on a consecutive group of ports but not all ports, the power supply is probably not defective, and the problem could be related to PoE regulators in the switch.

Use the show log privileged EXEC command to review alarms or system messages that previously reported PoE conditions or status changes. If there are no alarms, use the show interface status command to verify that the ports are not shut down or error-disabled.

If ports are error-disabled, use the shut and no shut interface configuration commands to reenable the ports. Review the running configuration to verify that power inline never is not configured on the ports. Connect a nonpowered Ethernet device directly to a switch port. Use only a short patch cord. Do not use the existing distribution cables. Enter the shut and no shut interface configuration commands, and verify that an Ethernet link is established.

If this connection is good, use a short patch cord to connect a powered device to this port and verify that it powers on. If the device powers on, verify that all intermediate patch panels are correctly connected. Disconnect all but one of the Ethernet cables from switch ports. Using a short patch cord, connect a powered device to only one PoE port.

Verify the powered device does not require more power than can be delivered by the switch port. Use the show power inline privileged EXEC command to verify that the powered device can receive power when the port is not shut down. Alternatively, watch the powered device to verify that it powers on. If a powered device can power on when only one powered device is connected to the switch, enter the shut and no shut interface configuration commands on the remaining ports, and then reconnect the Ethernet cables one at a time to the switch PoE ports.

Use the show interface status and show power inline privileged EXEC commands to monitor inline power statistics and port status. If there is still no PoE at any port, a fuse might be open in the PoE section of the power supply. This normally produces an alarm. Check the log again for alarms reported earlier by system messages.

After working normally, a Cisco phone or wireless access point intermittently reloads or disconnects from PoE. Verify all electrical connections from the switch to the powered device. Any unreliable connection results in power interruptions and irregular powered device functioning such as erratic powered device disconnects and reloads.

Verify that the cable length is not more than meters from the switch port to the powered device. Notice what changes in the electrical environment at the switch location or what happens at the powered device when the disconnect occurs. Notice whether any error messages appear at the same time a disconnect occurs. Use the show log privileged EXEC command to review error messages. Verify that an IP phone is not losing access to the Call Manager immediately before the reload occurs.

It might be a network problem and not a PoE problem. Replace the powered device with a non-PoE device, and verify that the device works correctly. If a non-PoE device has link problems or a high error rate, the problem might be an unreliable cable connection between the switch port and the powered device.

A non-Cisco powered device is connected to a Cisco PoE switch, but never powers on or powers on and then quickly powers off. Non-PoE devices work normally. Use the show power inline command to verify that the switch power budget available PoE is not depleted before or after the powered device is connected. Verify that sufficient power is available for the powered device type before you connect it. Use the show interface status command to verify that the switch detects the connected powered device.

Use the show log command to review system messages that reported an overcurrent condition on the port. Identify the symptom precisely: Does the powered device initially power on, but then disconnect? If so, the problem might be an initial surge-in or inrush current that exceeds a current-limit threshold for the port. Each period means the network server timed out while waiting for a reply. Simultaneously press and release the Ctrl , Shift , and 6 keys and then press the X key.

This example shows how to perform a traceroute to an IP host:. Because debugging output takes priority over other network traffic, and because the debug all privileged EXEC command generates more output than any other debug command, it can severely diminish switch performance or even render it unusable. The Cisco Support website provides extensive online resources, including documentation and tools for troubleshooting and resolving technical issues with Cisco products and technologies.

Access to most tools on the Cisco Support website requires a Cisco. Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content. PDF - Complete Book Updated: November 7, Chapter: Troubleshooting the Software Configuration. Troubleshooting the Software Configuration This chapter describes how to identify and resolve software problems related to the Cisco IOS software on the switch. The Cisco IOS image is stored as a bin file in a directory in the tar file.

For information about locating the software image files on Cisco. Step 2 Extract the bin file from the tar file. If you are using Windows, use a zip program that can read a tar file. Use the zip program to navigate to and extract the bin file. Step 4 Unplug the Switch power cord. Step 5 Press the Mode button, and at the same time, reconnect the power cord to the Switch. You can release the Mode button a second or two after the LED above port 1 goes off.

Several lines of information about the software appear with instructions: The system has been interrupted prior to initializing the flash file system. Step 12 Use the reload privileged EXEC command to restart the Switch and to verify that the new software image is operating properly. Recovering from a Lost or Forgotten Password The default configuration for the Switch allows an end user with physical access to the Switch to recover from a lost password by interrupting the boot process during power-on and by entering a new password.

Note On these Switch , a system administrator can disable some of the functionality of this feature by allowing an end user to reset a password only by agreeing to return to the default configuration. If you are an end user trying to reset a password when password recovery has been disabled, a status message shows this during the recovery process.

If you are recovering the password for a switch stack, connect to the console port of the active switch stack master. Connect a PC to the Ethernet management port. If you are recovering the password for a switch stack, connect to the Ethernet management port of a Catalyst E Catalyst X stack member. Step 2 Set the line speed on the emulation software to baud. Step 4 Reconnect the power cord to the Switch or the active switch stack master.

The system has been interrupted prior to initializing the flash file system. The password-recovery mechanism has been triggered, but is currently disabled. Several lines of information about the software appear with instructions, informing you if the password recovery procedure has been disabled or not.

Step 5 After recovering the password, reload the Switch or the active switch stack master. Procedure with Password Recovery Enabled Procedure with Password Recovery Disabled Procedure with Password Recovery Enabled If the password-recovery mechanism is enabled, this message appears: The system has been interrupted prior to initializing the flash file system. This file contains the password definition. Enter N at the prompt: Continue with the configuration dialog? Failure to follow this step can result in a lost configuration depending on how your Switch is set up.

Step 9 Copy the configuration file into memory: Switch copy flash:config. Destination filename [running-config]? Press Return in response to the confirmation prompts. The configuration file is now reloaded, and you can change the password. Step 10 Enter global configuration mode: Switch configure terminal Step 11 Change the password: Switch config enable secret password The secret password can be from 1 to 25 alphanumeric characters, can start with a number, is case sensitive, and allows spaces but ignores leading spaces.

Step 12 Return to privileged EXEC mode: Switch config exit Switch Step 13 Write the running configuration to the startup configuration file: Switch copy running-config startup-config The new password is now in the startup configuration. Note This procedure is likely to leave your Switch virtual interface in a shutdown state. You can see which interface is in this state by entering the show running-config privileged EXEC command.

To re-enable the interface, enter the interface vlan vlan-id global configuration command, and specify the VLAN ID of the shutdown interface. With the Switch in interface configuration mode, enter the no shutdown command. Step 14 Reload the Switch or switch stack: Switch reload Procedure with Password Recovery Disabled If the password-recovery mechanism is disabled, this message appears: The password-recovery mechanism has been triggered, but is currently disabled. Access to the boot loader prompt through the password-recovery mechanism is disallowed at this point.

However, if you agree to let the system be reset back to the default system configuration, access to the boot loader prompt can still be allowed. Caution Returning the Switch to the default configuration results in the loss of all existing configurations. You see the message: Press Enter to continue Directory of flash: 13 drwx Mar 01 cx-universalk9-mz.

To continue with password recovery, enter N at the prompt: Continue with the configuration dialog? Step 9 Write the running configuration to the startup configuration file: Switch copy running-config startup-config The new password is now in the startup configuration. Step 10 You must now reconfigure the Switch. Preventing Switch Stack Problems To prevent switch stack problems, you should do the following: Make sure that the Switch that you add to or remove from the switch stack are powered off.

The last two port LEDs on the Switch should be green. If one or both of the last two port LEDs are not green, the stack is not operating at full bandwidth. We recommend using only one CLI session when managing the switch stack.

Be careful when using multiple CLI sessions to the active switch stack master. Commands that you enter in one session are not displayed in the other sessions. Therefore, it is possible that you might not be able to identify the session from which you entered a command. Manually assigning stack member numbers according to the placement of the Switch in the stack can make it easier to remotely troubleshoot the switch stack.

However, you need to remember that the Switch have manually assigned numbers if you add, remove, or rearrange Switch later. Use the switch current-stack-member-number renumber new-stack-member-number global configuration command to manually assign a stack member number. To recover from a partitioned switch stack, follow these steps: Power off the newly created switch stacks.

Recovering from a Command Switch Failure This section describes how to recover from a failed command Switch. Note HSRP is the preferred method for supplying redundancy to a cluster. You can prepare for a command Switch failure by assigning an IP address to a member Switch or another Switch that is command-capable, making a note of the command-switch password, and cabling your cluster to provide redundant connectivity between the member Switch and the replacement command Switch.

These sections describe two solutions for replacing a failed command switch: Replacing a Failed Command Switch with a Cluster Member Replacing a Failed Command Switch with Another Switch These recovery procedures require that you have physical access to the Switch.

Step 2 Insert the member Switch in place of the failed command switch, and duplicate its connections to the cluster members. For details about using the console port, see the Switch hardware installation guide. Step 6 Enter global configuration mode. Switch configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. Step 7 Remove the member Switch from the cluster. Switch setup System Configuration Dialog Continue with configuration dialog?

Use ctrl-c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt. Default settings are in square brackets '[]'. Basic management setup configures only enough connectivity for management of the system, extended setup will ask you to configure each interface on the system Would you like to enter basic management setup? The prompts in the setup program vary depending on the member Switch that you selected to be the command switch: Continue with configuration dialog? Enter setup , and press Return to start the setup program.

Step 11 Respond to the questions in the setup program. When prompted for the hostname, recall that on a command Switch , the hostname is limited to 28 characters; on a member Switch to 31 characters. Do not use -n , where n is a number, as the last characters in a hostname for any Switch.

When prompted for the Telnet virtual terminal password, recall that it can be from 1 to 25 alphanumeric characters, is case sensitive, allows spaces, but ignores leading spaces. Step 12 When prompted for the enable secret and enable passwords, enter the passwords of the failed command switch again. Step 13 When prompted, make sure to enable the Switch as the cluster command Switch , and press Return.

Step 14 When prompted, assign a name to the cluster, and press Return. The cluster name can be 1 to 31 alphanumeric characters, dashes, or underscores. Step 15 After the initial configuration displays, verify that the addresses are correct. Step 16 If the displayed information is correct, enter Y , and press Return. If this information is not correct, enter N , press Return , and begin again at Step 9.

Step 17 Start your browser, and enter the IP address of the new command Switch. Step 18 From the Cluster menu, select Add to Cluster to display a list of candidate Switch to add to the cluster. Replacing a Failed Command Switch with Another Switch To replace a failed command Switch with a Switch that is command-capable but not part of the cluster, follow these steps: Procedure Command or Action Purpose Step 1 Insert the new Switch in place of the failed command Switch , and duplicate its connections to the cluster members.

For details about using the Ethernet management port, see the Using the Ethernet Management Port section and the hardware configuration guide. Step 5 Use the setup program to configure the Switch IP information. The prompts in the setup program vary depending on the switch you selected to be the command Switch : Continue with configuration dialog? Step 7 Respond to the questions in the setup program. When prompted for the hostname, recall that on a command Switch , the hostname is limited to 28 characters.

Do not use -n , where n is a number, as the last character in a hostname for any Switch. Step 8 When prompted for the enable secret and enable passwords, enter the passwords of the failed command switch again. Step 9 When prompted, make sure to enable the Switch as the cluster command Switch , and press Return.

Step 10 When prompted, assign a name to the cluster, and press Return. Step 11 When the initial configuration displays, verify that the addresses are correct. Step 12 If the displayed information is correct, enter Y , and press Return. Step 13 Start your browser, and enter the IP address of the new command Switch.

Step 14 From the Cluster menu, select Add to Cluster to display a list of candidate Switch to add to the cluster. Recovering from Lost Cluster Member Connectivity Some configurations can prevent the command Switch from maintaining contact with member Switch. If you are unable to maintain management contact with a member, and the member Switch is forwarding packets normally, check for these conflicts: A member Switch Catalyst , Catalyst , Catalyst , Catalyst XL, Catalyst , Catalyst , Catalyst , Catalyst XL, Catalyst , and Catalyst switch cannot connect to the command Switch through a port that is defined as a network port.

A member Switch Catalyst , Catalyst , Catalyst , Catalyst , Catalyst , Catalyst , Catalyst XL, Catalyst XL, Catalyst , and Catalyst Switch connected to the command Switch through a secured port can lose connectivity if the port is disabled because of a security violation. A mismatch occurs under these circumstances: A manually set speed or duplex parameter is different from the manually set speed or duplex parameter on the connected port.

To maximize Switch performance and ensure a link, follow one of these guidelines when changing the settings for duplex and speed: Let both ports autonegotiate both speed and duplex. Note If a remote device does not autonegotiate, configure the duplex settings on the two ports to match. Use these commands, described in the command reference for this release, to monitor the PoE port status: show controllers power inline privileged EXEC command show power inline privileged EXEC command debug ilpower privileged EXEC command Disabled Port Caused by False Link-Up If a Cisco powered device is connected to a port and you configure the port by using the power inline never interface configuration command, a false link-up can occur, placing the port into an error-disabled state.

Monitoring Temperature The Switch monitors the temperature conditions and uses the temperature information to control the fans. Ping returns one of these responses: Normal response—The normal response hostname is alive occurs in 1 to 10 seconds, depending on network traffic. Related Tasks Executing Ping Executing Ping If you attempt to ping a host in a different IP subnetwork, you must define a static route to the network or have IP routing configured to route between those subnets.

Note Though other protocol keywords are available with the ping command, they are not supported in this release. Use this command to ping another device on the network from the Switch : Command Purpose ping ip host address Switch ping Table 1. Each exclamation point means receipt of a reply. U A destination unreachable error PDU was received.

C A congestion experienced packet was received. I User interrupted test. Unknown packet type. The traceroute mac ip command output shows the Layer 2 path when the specified source and destination IP addresses belong to the same subnet. IP Traceroute You can use IP traceroute to identify the path that packets take through the network on a hop-by-hop basis.

Command Purpose traceroute ip host Switch traceroute ip Table 2. A Administratively unreachable. H Host unreachable. N Network unreachable. P Protocol unreachable. Q Source quench. U Port unreachable. TDR can detect these cabling problems: Open, broken, or cut twisted-pair wires—The wires are not connected to the wires from the remote device.

Use TDR to diagnose and resolve cabling problems in these situations: Replacing a Switch Setting up a wiring closet Troubleshooting a connection between two devices when a link cannot be established or when it is not operating properly When you run TDR, the Switch reports accurate information in these situations: The cable for the gigabit link is a solid-core cable. The open-ended cable is not terminated. When you run TDR, the Switch does not report accurate information in these situations: The cable for the gigabit link is a twisted-pair cable or is in series with a solid-core cable.

The cable is a stranded cable. The link partner is a Cisco IP Phone. The link partner is not IEEE Debug Commands Caution Because debugging output is assigned high priority in the CPU process, it can render the system unusable. If you enable a debug command and no output appears, consider these possibilities: The Switch might not be properly configured to generate the type of traffic you want to monitor.

Use the show running-config command to check its configuration. Even if the Switch is properly configured, it might not generate the type of traffic you want to monitor during the particular period that debugging is enabled. To disable debugging of SPAN, enter this command in privileged EXEC mode: Switch no debug span-session Alternately, in privileged EXEC mode, you can enter the undebug form of the command: Switch undebug span-session To display the state of each debugging option, enter this command in privileged EXEC mode: Switch show debugging Enabling All-System Diagnostics Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, enter this command to enable all-system diagnostics: Switch debug all Note Caution: Because debugging output takes priority over other network traffic, and because the debug all privileged EXEC command generates more output than any other debug command, it can severely diminish Switch performance or even render it unusable.

Redirecting Debug and Error Message Output By default, the network server sends the output from debug commands and system error messages to the console. Note Be aware that the debugging destination you use affects system overhead.

Note Make sure to save the syslog to flash memory so that the syslog is not lost if the active switch stack master fails. Using the show platform forward Command The output from the show platform forward privileged EXEC command provides some useful information about the forwarding results if a packet entering an interface is sent through the system. Note For more syntax and usage information for the show platform forward command, see the Switch command reference for this release.

Using the crashinfo Files The crashinfo files save information that helps Cisco technical support representatives to debug problems that caused the Cisco IOS image to fail crash. The switch writes the crash information to the console at the time of the failure. The switch creates two types of crashinfo files: Basic crashinfo file—The switch automatically creates this file the next time you boot up the Cisco IOS image after the failure.

Extended crashinfo file—The switch automatically creates this file when the system is failing. Basic crashinfo Files Extended crashinfo Files Basic crashinfo Files The information in the basic file includes the Cisco IOS image name and version that failed, a list of the processor registers, and a stack trace. Extended crashinfo Files The Switch creates the extended crashinfo file when the system is failing.

Using Memory Consistency Check Routines The Switch runs memory consistency check routines to detect and correct invalid ternary content addressable memory TCAM table entries that can affect the performance of the Switch. Table 3. Masks The number of invalid masks. Fixups The number of initial attempts to fix the invalid values or masks.

Retries The number of repeated attempts to fix the invalid values or masks. Failures The number of failed attempts to fix the invalid values or masks. System may get overheated. Change fan quickly. The time spent handling interrupts is zero percent.

Table 5. The CPU is receiving too many packets from the network. Verify that the powered device works on another PoE port. Note Most switches turn off port power when the port is shut down, even though the IEEE specifications make this optional. No PoE on all ports or a group of ports. Cisco IP Phone disconnects or resets. Non-Cisco powered device does not work on Cisco PoE switch. Use the Troubleshooting Switch Stacks document for problem solutions and tutorial information. Enter the show version user EXEC command.

Enter the show platform stack-manager all command. Look carefully at the cables and connections. Configuration mismatch that is, SDM templates if switch was used for other applications before you added it to the stack. Possible traffic disruption. Reduced stack ring bandwidth, or slow throughput between switch ports or between switches in the stack. Enter the show switch stack-ring speed user EXEC command. Enter the show switch detail user EXEC command to see which stack cable or connection is causing the problem.

Check the retainer screws on the StackWise cable connectors. Port numbering in one or more switches is incorrect or changed. Enter the show switch detail user EXEC command. Cluster member Switch are switches and switch stacks that have actually been added to a Switch cluster. Although not required, a candidate or cluster member Switch can have its own IP address and password. Anticipating conflicts and compatibility issues is a high priority when you manage several switches through a cluster.

This section describes these guidelines, requirements, and caveats that you should understand before you create the cluster. See the release notes for the list of Catalyst switches eligible for switch clustering, including which ones can be cluster command switches and which ones can only be cluster member switches, and for the required software versions and browser and Java plug-in configurations.

By using CDP, a cluster command switch can discover switches up to seven CDP hops away the default is three hops from the edge of the cluster. The edge of the cluster is where the last cluster member switches are connected to the cluster and to candidate switches. For example, cluster member switches 9 and 10 in the Figure are at the edge of the cluster.

The CDP hop count is three. The cluster command switch discovers switches 11, 12, 13, and 14 because they are within three hops from the edge of the cluster. It does not discover switch 15 because it is four hops from the edge of the cluster.

If a cluster command switch is connected to a non-CDP-capable third-party hub such as a non-Cisco hub , it can discover cluster-enabled devices connected to that third-party hub. However, if the cluster command switch is connected to a noncluster-capable Cisco device , it cannot discover a cluster-enabled device connected beyond the noncluster-capable Cisco device.

Below figure shows that the cluster command switch discovers the switch that is connected to a third-party hub. However, the cluster command switch does not discover the switch that is connected to a Catalyst switch. As cluster member switches, they must be connected through at least one VLAN in common with the cluster command switch. It does not discover the switch in VLAN They do not need to be connected to the cluster command switch through their management VLAN. Each cluster command switch discovers the switches in the different management VLANs except these:.

To join a cluster, the new, out-of-the-box switch must be connected to the cluster through one of its access ports. By default, the new switch and its access ports are assigned to VLAN 1. The new switch also configures its access port to belong to the VLAN of the immediately upstream neighbor. The switches in the cluster standby group are ranked according to HSRP priorities. The switch with the highest priority in the group is the active cluster command switch AC.

The switch with the next highest priority is the standby cluster command switch SC. The other switches in the cluster standby group are the passive cluster command switches PC. If the active cluster command switch and the standby cluster command switch become disabled at the same time , the passive cluster command switch with the highest priority becomes the active cluster command switch.

The HSRP standby priority interface configuration commands are the same for changing the priority of cluster standby group members and router-redundancy group members. You need to assign a unique virtual IP address and group number and name to the cluster standby group.

This information must be configured on a specific VLAN or routed port on the active cluster command switch. The active cluster command switch receives traffic destined for the virtual IP address. To manage the cluster, you must access the active cluster command switch through the virtual IP address, not through the command-switch IP address. This is in case the IP address of the active cluster command switch is different from the virtual IP address of the cluster standby group.

If the active cluster command switch fails, the standby cluster command switch assumes ownership of the virtual IP address and becomes the active cluster command switch. The passive switches in the cluster standby group compare their assigned priorities to decide the new standby cluster command switch.

The passive standby switch with the highest priority then becomes the standby cluster command switch. When the previously active cluster command switch becomes active again, it resumes its role as the active cluster command switch, and the current active cluster command switch becomes the standby cluster command switch again.

Standby cluster command switches must be the same type of switches as the cluster command switch. For example, if the cluster command switch is a Catalyst E or Catalyst X switch, the standby cluster command switches must also be Catalyst E or Catalyst X switches. See the switch configuration guide of other cluster-capable switches for their requirements on standby cluster command switches.

If your switch cluster has a Catalyst X switch or a switch stack, it should be the cluster command switch. If not, when the cluster has a Catalyst E switch or switch stack, that switch should be the cluster command switch. Only one cluster standby group can be assigned to a cluster. You can have more than one router-redundancy standby group. An HSRP group can be both a cluster standby group and a router-redundancy group. However, if a router-redundancy group becomes a cluster standby group, router redundancy becomes disabled on that group.

You can re-enable it by using the CLI. Each standby-group member Figure below must be connected to the cluster command switch through the same VLAN. In this example, the cluster command switch and standby cluster command switches are Catalyst E, Catalyst E, Catalyst X, or Catalyst X cluster command switches. Each standby-group member must also be redundantly connected to each other through at least one VLAN in common with the switch cluster. The active cluster command switch continually forwards cluster-configuration information but not device-configuration information to the standby cluster command switch.

This ensures that the standby cluster command switch can take over the cluster immediately after the active cluster command switch fails. When the previously active cluster command switch resumes its active role, it receives a copy of the latest cluster configuration from the active cluster command switch, including members that were added while it was down.

The active cluster command switch sends a copy of the cluster configuration to the cluster standby group. You must assign IP information to a cluster command switch. You can assign more than one IP address to the cluster command switch, and you can access the cluster through any of the command-switch IP addresses. If you configure a cluster standby group, you must use the standby-group virtual IP address to manage the cluster from the active cluster command switch.

Using the virtual IP address ensures that you retain connectivity to the cluster if the active cluster command switch fails and that a standby cluster command switch becomes the active cluster command switch. If the active cluster command switch fails and the standby cluster command switch takes over, you must either use the standby-group virtual IP address or any of the IP addresses available on the new active cluster command switch to access the cluster.

You can assign an IP address to a cluster-capable switch, but it is not necessary. A cluster member switch is managed and communicates with other cluster member switches through the command-switch IP address. If the cluster member switch leaves the cluster and it does not have its own IP address, you must assign an IP address to manage it as a standalone switch. You do not need to assign a host name to either a cluster command switch or an eligible cluster member.

However, a hostname assigned to the cluster command switch can help to identify the switch cluster. The default hostname for the switch is Switch. If a switch joins a cluster and it does not have a hostname, the cluster command switch appends a unique member number to its own hostname and assigns it sequentially as each switch joins the cluster.

The number means the order in which the switch was added to the cluster. For example, a cluster command switch named eng-cluster could name the fifth cluster member eng-cluster If a switch has a hostname, it retains that name when it joins a cluster and when it leaves the cluster. If a switch received its hostname from the cluster command switch, was removed from a cluster, was then added to a new cluster, and kept the same member number such as 5 , the switch overwrites the old hostname such as eng-cluster-5 with the hostname of the cluster command switch in the new cluster such as mkg-cluster If the switch member number changes in the new cluster such as 3 , the switch retains the previous name eng-cluster You do not need to assign passwords to an individual switch if it will be a cluster member.

When a switch joins a cluster, it inherits the command-switch password and retains it when it leaves the cluster. If no command-switch password is configured, the cluster member switch inherits a null password. Cluster member switches only inherit the command-switch password.

If you change the member-switch password to be different from the command-switch password and save the change, the switch is not manageable by the cluster command switch until you change the member-switch password to match the command-switch password. Rebooting the member switch does not revert the password back to the command-switch password. We recommend that you do not change the member-switch password after it joins a cluster.

For password considerations specific to the Catalyst and Catalyst switches, see the installation and configuration guides for those switches. If the cluster command switch has multiple read-only or read-write community strings, only the first read-only and read-write strings are propagated to the cluster member switch.

The switches support an unlimited number of community strings and string lengths. For SNMP considerations specific to the Catalyst and Catalyst switches, see the installation and configuration guides specific to those switches. A configuration conflict occurs if a switch cluster has Long-Reach Ethernet LRE switches that use both private and public profiles.

If one LRE switch in a cluster is assigned a public profile, all LRE switches in that cluster must have that same public profile. Before you add an LRE switch to a cluster, make sure that you assign it the same public profile used by other LRE switches in the cluster. A cluster can have a mix of LRE switches that use different private profiles.

You can configure cluster member switches from the CLI by first logging into the cluster command switch. Enter the rcommand user EXEC command and the cluster member switch number to start a Telnet session through a console or Telnet connection and to access the cluster member switch CLI. The command mode changes, and the Cisco IOS commands operate as usual.

If you do not know the member-switch number, enter the show cluster members privileged EXEC command on the cluster command switch. For more information about the rcommand command and all other cluster commands, see the switch command reference. The Telnet session accesses the member-switch CLI at the same privilege level as on the cluster command switch. The Cisco IOS commands then operate as usual.

If your switch cluster has Catalyst and Catalyst switches running standard edition software, the Telnet session accesses the management console a menu-driven interface if the cluster command switch is at privilege level If the cluster command switch is at privilege level 1 to 14, you are prompted for the password to access the menu console.

Command-switch privilege levels map to the Catalyst and Catalyst cluster member switches running standard and Enterprise Edition Software as follows:. If the command-switch privilege level is 1 to 14, the cluster member switch is accessed at privilege level 1. If the command-switch privilege level is 15, the cluster member switch is accessed at privilege level For more information about the Catalyst and Catalyst switches, see the installation and configuration guides for those switches.

When you first power on the switch, SNMP is enabled if you enter the IP information by using the setup program and accept its proposed configuration. When you create a cluster, the cluster command switch manages the exchange of messages between cluster member switches and an SNMP application. The cluster software on the cluster command switch appends the cluster member switch number esN , where N is the switch number to the first configured read-write and read-only community strings on the cluster command switch and propagates them to the cluster member switch.

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For filesystem , use flash: for the system board flash device. For file-url , enter the name of the directory to be deleted. All of the files in the directory and the directory are removed. To copy a file from a source to a destination, use the copy source-url destination-url privileged EXEC command.

For the source and destination URLs, you can use running-config and startup-config keyword shortcuts. For example, the copy running-config startup-config command saves the currently running configuration file to the NVRAM section of flash memory to be used as the configuration during system initialization. You can also copy from special file systems xmodem: , ymodem: as the source for the file from a network machine that uses the Xmodem or Ymodem protocol.

Some invalid combinations of source and destination exist. Specifically, you cannot copy these combinations:. From a device to the same device for example, the copy flash: flash: command is invalid. When you no longer need a file on a flash memory device, you can permanently delete it. If you omit the filesystem: option, the switch uses the default device specified by the cd command.

For file-url , you specify the path directory and the name of the file to be deleted. You can create a file and write files into it, list the files in a file, and extract the files from a file as described in the next sections. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create a file, display the contents, and extract it:.

For destination-url, specify the destination URL alias for the local or network file system and the name of the file to create:. Local flash file system syntax:. You can also specify an optional list of files or directories within the source directory to add to the new file.

If none are specified, all files and directories at this level are written to the newly created file. For source-url , specify the source URL alias for the local or network file system. The -filename. These options are supported:. You can also limit the file displays by specifying a list of files or directories after the file. Only those files appear. If none are specified, all files and directories appear. Extracts a file into a directory on the flash file system.

For source-url , specify the source URL alias for the local file system. If none are specified, all files and directories are extracted. Displays the contents of any readable file, including a file on a remote file system. Configuration files contain commands entered to customize the function of the Cisco IOS software. A way to create a basic configuration file is to use the setup program or to enter the setup privileged EXEC command.

You might want to perform this for one of these reasons:. To use the configuration file for another switch. For example, you might add another switch to your network and want it to have a configuration similar to the original switch. By copying the file to the new switch, you can change the relevant parts rather than recreating the whole file.

To load the same configuration commands on all the switches in your network so that all the switches have similar configurations. You might perform this task to back up a current configuration file to a server before changing its contents so that you can later restore the original configuration file from the server.

The protocol you use depends on which type of server you are using. Creating configuration files can aid in your switch configuration. Configuration files can contain some or all of the commands needed to configure one or more switches. For example, you might want to download the same configuration file to several switches that have the same hardware configuration. We recommend that you connect through the console port or Ethernet management port for the initial configuration of the switch.

If you are accessing the switch through a network connection instead of through a direct connection to the console port or Ethernet management port, keep in mind that some configuration changes such as changing the switch IP address or disabling ports can cause a loss of connectivity to the switch. If no password has been set on the switch, we recommend that you set one by using the enable secret secret-password global configuration command. The switch does not erase the existing running configuration before adding the commands.

If a command in the copied configuration file replaces a command in the existing configuration file, the existing command is erased. For example, if the copied configuration file contains a different IP address in a particular command than the existing configuration, the IP address in the copied configuration is used.

However, some commands in the existing configuration might not be replaced or negated. In this case, the resulting configuration file is a mixture of the existing configuration file and the copied configuration file, with the copied configuration file having precedence. Startup configuration files are used during system startup to configure the software.

Running configuration files contain the current configuration of the software. The two configuration files can be different. For example, you might want to change the configuration for a short time period rather than permanently. In this case, you would change the running configuration but not save the configuration byusing the copy running-config startup-config privileged EXEC command.

When creating a configuration file, you must list commands logically so that the system can respond appropriately. This is one method of creating a configuration file:. Extract the portion of the configuration file with the desired commands, and save it in a new file.

Copy the configuration file to the appropriate server location. You can configure the switch by using configuration files you create, download from another switch, ordownload from a TFTP server. You can copy upload configuration files to a TFTP server for storage. Before you begin downloading or uploading a configuration file by using TFTP, do these tasks:. Ensure that the workstation acting as the TFTP server is properly configured.

To restart the daemon, either stop the inetd process and restart it, or enter a fastboot command on the SunOS 4. For more information on the TFTP daemon, see the documentation for your workstation. Ensure that the switch has a route to the TFTP server.

The switch and the TFTP server must be in the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check connectivity to the TFTP server by using the ping command. For download operations, ensure that the permissions on the file are set correctly. The permissionon the file should be world-read. Before uploading the configuration file, you might need to create an empty file on the TFTP server.

To create an empty file, enter the touch filename command, where filename is the name of the file you will use when uploading it to the server. During upload operations, if you are overwriting an existing file including an empty file, if you had to create one on the server, ensure that the permissions on the file are set correctly. Permissions on the file should be world-write. To configure the switch by using a configuration file downloaded from a TFTP server, follow these steps:.

Log into the switch through the console port, the Ethernet management port, or a Telnet session. The configuration file downloads, and the commands are executed as the file is parsed line-by-line. This example shows how to configure the software from the file tokyo-confg at IP address To upload a configuration file from a switch to a TFTP server for storage, follow these steps:.

Upload the switch configuration to the TFTP server. This example shows how to upload a configuration file from a switch to a TFTP server:. You can copy a configuration file from the switch to an FTP server. When you copy a configuration file from the switch to a server using FTP, the Cisco IOS software sends the first valid username it encounters in the following sequence:. The username specified in the copy EXEC command, if a username is specified.

The username set by the ip ftp username global configuration command, if the command is configured. The switch sends the first valid password it encounters in the following sequence:. The password specified in the copy command, if a password is specified. The password set by the ip ftp password command, if the command is configured.

The switch forms a password username switch name. The variable username is the username associated with the current session, switch name is the configured host name, and domain is the domain of the switch. The username and password must be associated with an account on the FTP server. If you are writing to the server, the FTP server must be properly configured to accept the FTP write request from the user on the switch.

If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file or image is written to or copied from the directory associated with the username on the server. For example, if the system image resides in the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user name as the remote username. Refer to the documentation for your FTP server for more information.

Use the ip ftp username and ip ftp password global configuration commands to specify a username and password for all copies. Include the username in the copy EXEC command if you want to specify a username for that copy operation only. Before you begin downloading or uploading a configuration file by using FTP, do these tasks:. Ensure that the switch has a route to the FTP server. The switch and the FTP server must be in the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets.

Check connectivity to the FTP server by using the ping command. If you are accessing the switch through the console or a Telnet session and you do not have a valid username, make sure that the current FTP username is the one that you want to use for the FTP download. You can enter the show users privileged EXEC command to view the valid username.

If you do not want to use this username, create a new FTP username by using the ip ftp username username global configuration command during all copy operations. If you are accessing the switch through a Telnet session and you have a valid username, this username is used, and you do not need to set the FTP username.

Include the username in the copy command if you want to specify a username for only that copy operation. When you upload a configuration file to the FTP server, it must be properly configured to accept the write request from the user on the switch. Enter global configuration mode on the switch. This step is required only if you override the default remote username or password see Steps 2, 3, and 4. Using FTP, copy the configuration file from a network server to the running configuration or to the startup configuration file.

This example shows how to copy a configuration file named host1-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address of This example shows how to specify a remote username of netadmin1. The software copies the configuration file host2-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address of Using FTP, store the switch running or startup configuration file to the specified location.

This example shows how to copy the running configuration file named switch2-confg to the netadmin1 directory on the remote host with an IP address of This example shows how to store a startup configuration file on a server by using FTP to copy the file:. The RCP provides another method of downloading, uploading, and copying configuration files between remote hosts and the switch.

The RCP copy commands rely on the rsh server or daemon on the remote system. You only need to have access to a server that supports the remote shell rsh. Most UNIX systems support rsh. Because you are copying a file from one place to another, you must have read permission on the source file and write permission on the destination file.

If the destination file does not exist, RCP creates it for you. When you copy a configuration file from the switch to a server, the Cisco IOS software sends the first valid username inthis list:. The username specified in the copy command if a username is specified.

The username set by the ip rcmd remote-username username global configuration command if the command is configured. The remote username associated with the current TTY terminal process. For example, if the user is connected to the router through Telnet and was authenticated through the username command, the switch software sends the Telnet username as the remote username. For a successful RCP copy request, you must define an account on the network server for the remote username.

If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file is written to or copied from the directory associated with the remote username on the server. For example, if the configuration file is in the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username. Before you begin downloading or uploading a configuration file by using RCP, do these tasks:. Ensure that the workstation acting as the RCP server supports the remote shell rsh.

Ensure that the switch has a route to the RCP server. The switch and the server must be in the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check connectivity to the RCP server by using the ping command. If you are accessing the switch through the console or a Telnet session and you do not have a valid username, make sure that the current RCP username is the one that you want to use for the RCP download. If you do not want to use this username, create a new RCP username by using the ip rcmd remote-username username global configuration command to be used during all copy operations.

If you are accessing the switch through a Telnet session and you have a valid username, this username is used, and you do not need to set the RCP username. When you upload a file to the RCP server, it must be properly configured to accept the RCP write request from the user on the switch. For UNIX systems, you must add an entry to the. For example, suppose that the switch contains these configuration lines:.

If the switch IP address translates to Switch1. This step is required only if you override the default remote username see Steps 2 and 3. Using RCP, copy the configuration file from a network server to the running configuration or to the startup configuration file. Then it copies the configuration file host2-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address of Using RCP, copy the configuration file from a switch running configuration or startup configuration file to a network server.

This example shows how to store a startup configuration file on a server:. You can clear the configuration information from the startup configuration. If you reboot the switch with no startup configuration, the switch enters the setup program so that you can reconfigure the switch with all new settings. To delete a saved configuration from flash memory, use the delete flash:filename privileged EXEC command. Depending on the setting of the file prompt global configuration command, you might be prompted for confirmation before you delete a file.

By default, the switch prompts for confirmation on destructive file operations. The configuration replacement and rollback feature replaces the running configuration with any saved Cisco IOS configuration file. You can use the rollback function to roll back to a previous configuration. The Cisco IOS configuration archive is intended to provide a mechanism to store, organize, and manage an archive of Cisco IOS configuration files to enhance the configuration rollback capability provided by the configure replace command.

Before this feature was introduced, you could save copies of the running configuration using the copy running-config destination-url command, storing the replacement file either locally or remotely. However, this method lacked any automated file management. On the other hand, the Configuration Replace and Configuration Rollback feature provides the capability to automatically save copies of the running configuration to the Cisco IOS configuration archive.

These archived files serve as checkpoint configuration references and can be used by the configure replace command to revert to previous configuration states. The archive config command allows you to save Cisco IOS configurations in the configuration archive using a standard location and filename prefix that is automatically appended with an incremental version number and optional timestamp as each consecutive file is saved. This functionality provides a means for consistent identification of saved Cisco IOS configuration files.

You can specify how many versions of the running configuration are kept in the archive. After the maximum number of files are saved in the archive, the oldest file is automatically deleted when the next, most recent file is saved.

The show archive command displays information for all configuration files saved in the Cisco IOS configuration archive. The configure replace privileged EXEC command replaces the running configuration with any saved configuration file. When you enter the configure replace command, the running configuration is compared with the specified replacement configuration, and a set of configuration differences is generated. The resulting differences are used to replace the configuration.

The configuration replacement operation is usually completed in no more than three passes. To prevent looping behavior no more than five passes are performed. You can use the copy source-url running-config privileged EXEC command to copy a stored configuration file to the running configuration. When using this command as an alternative to the configure replace target-ur l privileged EXEC command, note these major differences:.

The copy source-url running-config command is a merge operation and preserves all the commands from both the source file and the running configuration. This command does not remove commands from the running configuration that are not present in the source file. In contrast, the configure replace target-url command removes commands from the running configuration that are not present in the replacement file and adds commands to the running configuration that are not present.

You can also use the configure replace command to roll back changes that were made since the previous configuration was saved. Instead of basing the rollback operation on a specific set of changes that were applied, the configuration rollback capability reverts to a specific configuration based on a saved configuration file.

If you want the configuration rollback capability, you must first save the running configuration before making any configuration changes. Then, after entering configuration changes, you can use that saved configuration file to roll back the changes by using the configure replace target-url command.

You can specify any saved configuration file as the rollback configuration. You are not limited to a fixed number of rollbacks, as is the case in some rollback models. Follow these guidelines when configuring and performing configuration replacement and rollback:. Make sure that the switch has free memory larger than the combined size of the two configuration files the running configuration and the saved replacement configuration.

Otherwise, the configuration replacement operation fails. Using the configure replace command with the configuration archive and with the archive config command is optional but offers significant benefit for configuration rollback scenarios.

Before using the archive config command , you must first configure the configuration archive. Starting in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the configuration archive:. Specify the location and filename prefix for the files in the configuration archive. Valid values are from 1 to The default is Starting in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to replace the running configuration file with a saved configuration file:.

The total number of passes also appears. If you do not enter the configure confirm command within the specified time limit, the configuration replacement operation is automatically stopped. In other words, the running configuration file is restored to the configuration that existed before you entered the configure replace command.

You must first enable the configuration archive before you can use the time seconds command line option. This section describes how to archive download and upload software image files, which contain the system software, the Cisco IOS code, and the embedded device manager software. You can replace the current image with the new one or keep the current image in flash memory after a download. You can use this uploaded image for future downloads to the same switch or to another of the same type.

The protocol that you use depends on which type of server you are using. The Cisco IOS image is stored as a. A subdirectory contains the files needed for web management. The image is stored on the system board flash memory flash:. You can use the show version privileged EXEC command to see the software version that is currently running on your switch. In the display, check the line that begins with System image file is It shows the directory name in flash memory where the image is stored.

You can also use the dir filesystem : privileged EXEC command to see the directory names of other software images that might be stored in flash memory. Software images located on a server or downloaded from Cisco. An info file, which serves as a table of contents for the tar file. One or more subdirectories containing other images and files, such as Cisco IOS images and web management files.

Specifies the Cisco IOS image size in the tar file, which is an approximate measure of how much flash memory is required to hold just the Cisco IOS image. Specifies the size of all the images the Cisco IOS image and the web management files in the tar file, which is an approximate measure of how much flash memory is required to hold them.

Describes the family of products on which the software can be installed. You download a switch image file from a server to upgrade the switch software. You can overwrite the current image with the new one or keep the current image after a download. You upload a switch image file to a server for backup purposes; this uploaded image can be used for future downloads to the same or another switch of the same type. Instead of using the copy privileged EXEC command or the archive tar privileged EXEC command, we recommend using the archive download-sw and archive upload-sw privileged EXEC commands to download and upload software image files.

Before you begin downloading or uploading an image file by using TFTP, do these tasks:. The permission on the file should be world-read. Before uploading the image file, you might need to create an empty file on the TFTP server.

To create an empty file, enter the touch filename command, where filename is the name of the file you will use when uploading the image to the server. You can download a new image file and replace the current image or keep the current image. To keep the current image, go to Step 3. Copy the image to the appropriate TFTP directory on the workstation. Make sure that the TFTP server is properly configured. Directory and image names are case sensitive. Download the image file from the TFTP server to the switch, and keep the current image.

The download algorithm verifies that the image is appropriate for the switch model and that enough DRAM is present, or it cancels the process and reports an error. If there is not enough space to install the new image and keep the running image, the download process stops, and an error message is displayed.

The algorithm installs the downloaded image on the system board flash device flash:. The image is placed into a new directory named with the software version string, and the BOOT environment variable is updated to point to the newly installed image. For file-url , enter the directory name of the old image. All the files in the directory and the directory are removed. Before we begin, enter Global Configuration Mode by executing the following command:.

Completing simple tasks like configuring passwords and creating network access lists controls who can access the switch can enable you to stay secure online. Incomplete or incorrect configurations are a vulnerability that attackers can exploit. Configuring a Cisco switch is only half the battle, you also have to regularly monitor its status. Any performance issues with your switch can have a substantial impact on your users. Using a network monitoring tool and network analyzer can help you to monitor switches remotely and review performance concerns.

Taking the time out of your day to configure a switch and assign strong passwords gives you peace of mind so that you can communicate safely online. Follow these steps for a workaround:. The typical Cisco switch is ready to go out-of-the-box. However, you might want to change some parameters to customize its operations. I have different field in IT and willing to learn Networking. I see that this tutorial help me alot.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Comparitech uses cookies. More info. Menu Close. We are reader supported and may receive a commission when you make purchases using the links on our site. Configuring a Cisco switch properly means your network can make connections efficiently. In this step-by-step guide, we walk you through configuring Cisco switches and look at some FAQs.

Tim Keary Network administration expert. Go to the Connection type settings and check the Serial option shown below. Go to the Category list section on the left-hand side and select the Serial option. When the options controlling local serial lines page displays enter the COM port your network is connected to in the Serial line to connect to box e. Next, enter the digital transmission speed of your switch model.

For and Series Managed Switches, this is Go to the Data bits field and enter 8. Now go to the Stops bits field and enter 1. Click on the Parity drop-down menu and select the None option. Go to the Flow Control drop-down menu and select the None option. Go to the Saved Session field and enter a name for your settings e. Click the Save button to store the settings.

Press the Open button at the bottom of the page to launch the CLI. Enter the following command to assign a hostname: Switch config hostname access-switch1 access-switch1 config 1 3. You can do this by entering the following command: access-switch1 config interface vlan 1 access-switch1 config-if ip address Assign a Default Gateway to the Switch At this stage, you want to assign a default gateway to the switch. Disable Unused Open Ports As a best practice, it is a good idea to disable any unused open ports on the switch.

To save enter the following command: access-switch1 config exit access-switch1 wr Always remember to save any changes to your settings before closing the CLI. Before we begin, enter Global Configuration Mode by executing the following command: Switch configure terminal Create a flow record The first step is to create a flow record you can change the name.

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How to Initially Configure a Cisco Switch Tutorial

CISCO DMM SOFTWARE

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Check connectivity to the FTP server by using the ping command. If you are accessing the switch through the console or a Telnet session and you do not have a valid username, make sure that the current FTP username is the one that you want to use for the FTP download. You can enter the show users privileged EXEC command to view the valid username. If you do not want to use this username, create a new FTP username by using the ip ftp username username global configuration command during all copy operations.

If you are accessing the switch through a Telnet session and you have a valid username, this username is used, and you do not need to set the FTP username. Include the username in the copy command if you want to specify a username for only that copy operation. When you upload a configuration file to the FTP server, it must be properly configured to accept the write request from the user on the switch.

Enter global configuration mode on the switch. This step is required only if you override the default remote username or password see Steps 2, 3, and 4. Using FTP, copy the configuration file from a network server to the running configuration or to the startup configuration file. This example shows how to copy a configuration file named host1-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address of This example shows how to specify a remote username of netadmin1.

The software copies the configuration file host2-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address of Using FTP, store the switch running or startup configuration file to the specified location. This example shows how to copy the running configuration file named switch2-confg to the netadmin1 directory on the remote host with an IP address of This example shows how to store a startup configuration file on a server by using FTP to copy the file:.

The RCP provides another method of downloading, uploading, and copying configuration files between remote hosts and the switch. The RCP copy commands rely on the rsh server or daemon on the remote system. You only need to have access to a server that supports the remote shell rsh.

Most UNIX systems support rsh. Because you are copying a file from one place to another, you must have read permission on the source file and write permission on the destination file. If the destination file does not exist, RCP creates it for you. When you copy a configuration file from the switch to a server, the Cisco IOS software sends the first valid username inthis list:. The username specified in the copy command if a username is specified. The username set by the ip rcmd remote-username username global configuration command if the command is configured.

The remote username associated with the current TTY terminal process. For example, if the user is connected to the router through Telnet and was authenticated through the username command, the switch software sends the Telnet username as the remote username.

For a successful RCP copy request, you must define an account on the network server for the remote username. If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file is written to or copied from the directory associated with the remote username on the server.

For example, if the configuration file is in the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username. Before you begin downloading or uploading a configuration file by using RCP, do these tasks:. Ensure that the workstation acting as the RCP server supports the remote shell rsh. Ensure that the switch has a route to the RCP server. The switch and the server must be in the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets.

Check connectivity to the RCP server by using the ping command. If you are accessing the switch through the console or a Telnet session and you do not have a valid username, make sure that the current RCP username is the one that you want to use for the RCP download. If you do not want to use this username, create a new RCP username by using the ip rcmd remote-username username global configuration command to be used during all copy operations.

If you are accessing the switch through a Telnet session and you have a valid username, this username is used, and you do not need to set the RCP username. When you upload a file to the RCP server, it must be properly configured to accept the RCP write request from the user on the switch.

For UNIX systems, you must add an entry to the. For example, suppose that the switch contains these configuration lines:. If the switch IP address translates to Switch1. This step is required only if you override the default remote username see Steps 2 and 3. Using RCP, copy the configuration file from a network server to the running configuration or to the startup configuration file. Then it copies the configuration file host2-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address of Using RCP, copy the configuration file from a switch running configuration or startup configuration file to a network server.

This example shows how to store a startup configuration file on a server:. You can clear the configuration information from the startup configuration. If you reboot the switch with no startup configuration, the switch enters the setup program so that you can reconfigure the switch with all new settings. To delete a saved configuration from flash memory, use the delete flash:filename privileged EXEC command. Depending on the setting of the file prompt global configuration command, you might be prompted for confirmation before you delete a file.

By default, the switch prompts for confirmation on destructive file operations. The configuration replacement and rollback feature replaces the running configuration with any saved Cisco IOS configuration file. You can use the rollback function to roll back to a previous configuration.

The Cisco IOS configuration archive is intended to provide a mechanism to store, organize, and manage an archive of Cisco IOS configuration files to enhance the configuration rollback capability provided by the configure replace command. Before this feature was introduced, you could save copies of the running configuration using the copy running-config destination-url command, storing the replacement file either locally or remotely.

However, this method lacked any automated file management. On the other hand, the Configuration Replace and Configuration Rollback feature provides the capability to automatically save copies of the running configuration to the Cisco IOS configuration archive. These archived files serve as checkpoint configuration references and can be used by the configure replace command to revert to previous configuration states. The archive config command allows you to save Cisco IOS configurations in the configuration archive using a standard location and filename prefix that is automatically appended with an incremental version number and optional timestamp as each consecutive file is saved.

This functionality provides a means for consistent identification of saved Cisco IOS configuration files. You can specify how many versions of the running configuration are kept in the archive. After the maximum number of files are saved in the archive, the oldest file is automatically deleted when the next, most recent file is saved. The show archive command displays information for all configuration files saved in the Cisco IOS configuration archive. The configure replace privileged EXEC command replaces the running configuration with any saved configuration file.

When you enter the configure replace command, the running configuration is compared with the specified replacement configuration, and a set of configuration differences is generated. The resulting differences are used to replace the configuration.

The configuration replacement operation is usually completed in no more than three passes. To prevent looping behavior no more than five passes are performed. You can use the copy source-url running-config privileged EXEC command to copy a stored configuration file to the running configuration. When using this command as an alternative to the configure replace target-ur l privileged EXEC command, note these major differences:.

The copy source-url running-config command is a merge operation and preserves all the commands from both the source file and the running configuration. This command does not remove commands from the running configuration that are not present in the source file. In contrast, the configure replace target-url command removes commands from the running configuration that are not present in the replacement file and adds commands to the running configuration that are not present.

You can also use the configure replace command to roll back changes that were made since the previous configuration was saved. Instead of basing the rollback operation on a specific set of changes that were applied, the configuration rollback capability reverts to a specific configuration based on a saved configuration file.

If you want the configuration rollback capability, you must first save the running configuration before making any configuration changes. Then, after entering configuration changes, you can use that saved configuration file to roll back the changes by using the configure replace target-url command. You can specify any saved configuration file as the rollback configuration. You are not limited to a fixed number of rollbacks, as is the case in some rollback models.

Follow these guidelines when configuring and performing configuration replacement and rollback:. Make sure that the switch has free memory larger than the combined size of the two configuration files the running configuration and the saved replacement configuration.

Otherwise, the configuration replacement operation fails. Using the configure replace command with the configuration archive and with the archive config command is optional but offers significant benefit for configuration rollback scenarios. Before using the archive config command , you must first configure the configuration archive. Starting in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the configuration archive:.

Specify the location and filename prefix for the files in the configuration archive. Valid values are from 1 to The default is Starting in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to replace the running configuration file with a saved configuration file:.

The total number of passes also appears. If you do not enter the configure confirm command within the specified time limit, the configuration replacement operation is automatically stopped. In other words, the running configuration file is restored to the configuration that existed before you entered the configure replace command. You must first enable the configuration archive before you can use the time seconds command line option.

This section describes how to archive download and upload software image files, which contain the system software, the Cisco IOS code, and the embedded device manager software. You can replace the current image with the new one or keep the current image in flash memory after a download.

You can use this uploaded image for future downloads to the same switch or to another of the same type. The protocol that you use depends on which type of server you are using. The Cisco IOS image is stored as a. A subdirectory contains the files needed for web management. The image is stored on the system board flash memory flash:. You can use the show version privileged EXEC command to see the software version that is currently running on your switch. In the display, check the line that begins with System image file is It shows the directory name in flash memory where the image is stored.

You can also use the dir filesystem : privileged EXEC command to see the directory names of other software images that might be stored in flash memory. Software images located on a server or downloaded from Cisco. An info file, which serves as a table of contents for the tar file.

One or more subdirectories containing other images and files, such as Cisco IOS images and web management files. Specifies the Cisco IOS image size in the tar file, which is an approximate measure of how much flash memory is required to hold just the Cisco IOS image. Specifies the size of all the images the Cisco IOS image and the web management files in the tar file, which is an approximate measure of how much flash memory is required to hold them.

Describes the family of products on which the software can be installed. You download a switch image file from a server to upgrade the switch software. You can overwrite the current image with the new one or keep the current image after a download. You upload a switch image file to a server for backup purposes; this uploaded image can be used for future downloads to the same or another switch of the same type.

Instead of using the copy privileged EXEC command or the archive tar privileged EXEC command, we recommend using the archive download-sw and archive upload-sw privileged EXEC commands to download and upload software image files. Before you begin downloading or uploading an image file by using TFTP, do these tasks:.

The permission on the file should be world-read. Before uploading the image file, you might need to create an empty file on the TFTP server. To create an empty file, enter the touch filename command, where filename is the name of the file you will use when uploading the image to the server. You can download a new image file and replace the current image or keep the current image. To keep the current image, go to Step 3. Copy the image to the appropriate TFTP directory on the workstation.

Make sure that the TFTP server is properly configured. Directory and image names are case sensitive. Download the image file from the TFTP server to the switch, and keep the current image. The download algorithm verifies that the image is appropriate for the switch model and that enough DRAM is present, or it cancels the process and reports an error. If there is not enough space to install the new image and keep the running image, the download process stops, and an error message is displayed.

The algorithm installs the downloaded image on the system board flash device flash:. The image is placed into a new directory named with the software version string, and the BOOT environment variable is updated to point to the newly installed image. For file-url , enter the directory name of the old image. All the files in the directory and the directory are removed. You can upload an image from the switch to a TFTP server.

You can later download this image to the switch or to another switch of the same type. Use the upload feature only if the web management pages associated with the embedded device manager have been installed with the existing image. The image-name. The archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command builds an image file on the server by uploading these files in order: info, the Cisco IOS image, and the web management files. After these files are uploaded, the upload algorithm creates the tar file format.

You upload a switch image file to a server for backup purposes. You can use this uploaded image for future downloads to the switch or another switch of the same type. You can copy images files to or from an FTP server. When you copy an image file from the switch to a server by using FTP, the Cisco IOS software sends the first valid username in this list:. The username specified in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command if a username is specified.

The username set by the ip ftp username username global configuration command if the command is configured. The password specified in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command if a password is specified.

The password set by the ip ftp password password global configuration command if the command is configured. The switch forms a password named username switchname. The variable username is the username associated with the current session, switchname is the configured hostname, and domain is the domain of the switch.

If you are writing to the server, the FTP server must be properly configured to accept the FTP write request from you. Use the ip ftp username and ip ftp password commands to specify a username and password for all copies.

Include the username in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command if you want to specify a username only for that operation. If the server has a directory structure, the image file is written to or copied from the directory associated with the username on the server. For example, if the image file resides in the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.

Before you begin downloading or uploading an image file by using FTP, do these tasks:. You can download a new image file and overwrite the current image or keep the current image. To keep the current image, go to Step 7. This step is required only if you override the default remote username or password see Steps 4, 5, and 6.

The algorithm installs the downloaded image onto the system board flash device flash:. For file-url , enter the directory name of the old software image. You can upload an image from the switch to an FTP server. You can later download this image to the same switch or to another switch of the same type.

This step is required only if you override the default remote username or password see Steps 2, 3,and 4. The archive upload-sw command builds an image file on the server by uploading these files in order: info, the Cisco IOS image, and the web management files. You can use this uploaded image for future downloads to the same switch or another of the same type.

RCP provides another method of downloading and uploading image files between remote hosts and the switch. The username set by the ip rcmd remote-username username global configuration command if the command is entered. For the RCP copy request to execute successfully, an account must be defined on the network server for the remote username. If the server has a directory structure, the image file is written to or copied from the directory associated with the remote username on the server.

Before you begin downloading or uploading an image file by using RCP, do these tasks:. You can download a new image file and replace or keep the current image. To keep the current image, go to Step 6. You can upload an image from the switch to an RCP server.

The upload feature should be used only if the web management pages associated with the embedded device manager have been installed with the existing image. This step is required only if you override the default remote username or password see Steps 2 and 3. Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content.

PDF - Complete Book Updated: October 26, Only one user at a time can manage the software bundles and configuration files. Free b Amount of free memory in the file system in bytes. Type Type of file system. Flags Permission for file system. Prefixes Alias for file system. Setting the Default File System You can specify the file system or directory that the system uses as the default file system by using the cd filesystem: privileged EXEC command.

By default, the default file system is flash:. Displaying Information About Files on a File System You can view a list of the contents of a file system before manipulating its contents. Table 2. Enter your password if prompted. Step 2 dir filesystem: Example: Switch dir flash: Displays the directories on the specified file system.

Step 4 pwd Example: Switch pwd Displays the working directory. Step 5 cd Example: Switch cd Navigates to the default directory. Step 3 dir filesystem: Example: Switch dir flash: Verifies your entry. Caution When directories are deleted, their contents cannot be recovered. Copying Files To copy a file from a source to a destination, use the copy source-url destination-url privileged EXEC command. Specifically, you cannot copy these combinations: From a running configuration to a running configuration From a startup configuration to a startup configuration From a device to the same device for example, the copy flash: flash: command is invalid Deleting Files Deleting Files When you no longer need a file on a flash memory device, you can permanently delete it.

When you attempt to delete any files, the system prompts you to confirm the deletion. Caution When files are deleted, their contents cannot be recovered. This example shows how to delete the file myconfig from the default flash memory device: Switch delete myconfig Creating, Displaying and Extracting Files You can create a file and write files into it, list the files in a file, and extract the files from a file as described in the next sections.

You might want to perform this for one of these reasons: To restore a backed-up configuration file. Guidelines for Creating and Using Configuration Files Creating configuration files can aid in your switch configuration. Use these guidelines when creating a configuration file: We recommend that you connect through the console port or Ethernet management port for the initial configuration of the switch.

Configuration File Types and Location Startup configuration files are used during system startup to configure the software. Creating a Configuration File By Using a Text Editor When creating a configuration file, you must list commands logically so that the system can respond appropriately.

Make sure the permissions on the file are set to world-read. Step 3 Extract the portion of the configuration file with the desired commands, and save it in a new file. Step 4 Copy the configuration file to the appropriate server location. Step 5 Make sure the permissions on the file are set to world-read.

Verify that the TFTP server is properly configured. Download the configuration file from the TFTP server to configure the switch. Step 3 Log into the switch through the console port, the Ethernet management port, or a Telnet session.

Example This example shows how to configure the software from the file tokyo-confg at IP address Log into the switch through the console port, the Ethernet management port, or a Telnet session Upload the switch configuration to the TFTP server. When you copy a configuration file from the switch to a server using FTP, the Cisco IOS software sends the first valid username it encounters in the following sequence: The username specified in the copy EXEC command, if a username is specified.

The switch sends the first valid password it encounters in the following sequence: The password specified in the copy command, if a password is specified. For more information, see the documentation for your FTP server. Step 2 ip ftp username username Optional Change the default remote username. Step 3 ip ftp password password Optional Change the default password. Example This example shows how to copy a configuration file named host1-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address of Switch configure terminal Switch config ip ftp username netadmin1 Switch config ip ftp password mypass Switch config end Switch copy ftp: nvram:startup-config Address of remote host [ Example This example shows how to copy the running configuration file named switch2-confg to the netadmin1 directory on the remote host with an IP address of Write file switch2-confg on host When you copy a configuration file from the switch to a server, the Cisco IOS software sends the first valid username inthis list: The username specified in the copy command if a username is specified.

The switch hostname. For example, suppose that the switch contains these configuration lines: hostname Switch1 ip rcmd remote-username User0 If the switch IP address translates to Switch1. Step 2 ip rcmd remote-username username Optional Change the default remote username. Step 2 ip rcmd remote-username username Optional Specify the remote username. Note You cannot restore the startup configuration file after it has been deleted. Note You cannot restore a file after it has been deleted.

Replacing and Rolling Back Configurations The configuration replacement and rollback feature replaces the running configuration with any saved Cisco IOS configuration file. Before we begin, enter Global Configuration Mode by executing the following command:. Completing simple tasks like configuring passwords and creating network access lists controls who can access the switch can enable you to stay secure online.

Incomplete or incorrect configurations are a vulnerability that attackers can exploit. Configuring a Cisco switch is only half the battle, you also have to regularly monitor its status. Any performance issues with your switch can have a substantial impact on your users. Using a network monitoring tool and network analyzer can help you to monitor switches remotely and review performance concerns. Taking the time out of your day to configure a switch and assign strong passwords gives you peace of mind so that you can communicate safely online.

Follow these steps for a workaround:. The typical Cisco switch is ready to go out-of-the-box. However, you might want to change some parameters to customize its operations. I have different field in IT and willing to learn Networking. I see that this tutorial help me alot. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Comparitech uses cookies. More info. Menu Close. We are reader supported and may receive a commission when you make purchases using the links on our site.

Configuring a Cisco switch properly means your network can make connections efficiently. In this step-by-step guide, we walk you through configuring Cisco switches and look at some FAQs. Tim Keary Network administration expert. Go to the Connection type settings and check the Serial option shown below.

Go to the Category list section on the left-hand side and select the Serial option. When the options controlling local serial lines page displays enter the COM port your network is connected to in the Serial line to connect to box e. Next, enter the digital transmission speed of your switch model. For and Series Managed Switches, this is Go to the Data bits field and enter 8. Now go to the Stops bits field and enter 1. Click on the Parity drop-down menu and select the None option.

Go to the Flow Control drop-down menu and select the None option. Go to the Saved Session field and enter a name for your settings e. Click the Save button to store the settings. Press the Open button at the bottom of the page to launch the CLI. Enter the following command to assign a hostname: Switch config hostname access-switch1 access-switch1 config 1 3.

You can do this by entering the following command: access-switch1 config interface vlan 1 access-switch1 config-if ip address Assign a Default Gateway to the Switch At this stage, you want to assign a default gateway to the switch.

Disable Unused Open Ports As a best practice, it is a good idea to disable any unused open ports on the switch. To save enter the following command: access-switch1 config exit access-switch1 wr Always remember to save any changes to your settings before closing the CLI.

Before we begin, enter Global Configuration Mode by executing the following command: Switch configure terminal Create a flow record The first step is to create a flow record you can change the name.

Cisco switch software configuration guide can you open an anydesk

Basic Initial Cisco Switch Configuration

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