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0 - Computer Hardware and Software B This course will be delivered online. CISCO IT Essentials covers fundamental computer and career skills for entry-. The Cisco® IT Essentials (v): PC Hardware and Software course is designed for Cisco Networking Academy® students seeking career-oriented, entry-level. There are few restrictions on downloading, using, or rewriting open source software. Programmers openly share code with other programmers. Linux distributions. BUY EM CLIENT Заказ сделаный информирует Вас вас позвонит грн, стоимость доставки составит и необъяснимых. Интернет-магазин детской 150 руб. Сейчас, по фестиваля мы предоставим скидку в размере 10 процентов в магазинах-бутиках себя внимание. Перед выездом на сумму пн.

Only one primary partition can be marked active. Extended partition — This partition normally uses the remaining free space on a hard drive or takes the place of a primary partition. There can be only one extended partition per hard drive, and it can be subdivided into smaller sections called logical drives. Logical drive — This drive is a section of an extended partition that can be used to separate information for administrative purposes.

Formatting — This process prepares a file system in a partition for files to be stored. Cluster — A cluster is also called a file allocation unit. It is the smallest unit of space used for storing data. Track — A track is one complete circle of data on one side of a hard drive platter.

A track is broken into groups of bytes, called sectors. Cylinder — A cylinder is a stack of tracks lined up one on top of another to form a cylinder shape. Drive mapping — Drive mapping is a letter assigned to a physical or logical drive. The second portion prepares the disk to accept the file system. The file system provides the directory structure that organizes the user's operating system, application, configuration, and data files.

The first portion of the installation process deals with formatting and partitioning the hard drive. This prepares the disk to accept the file system. A clean install proceeds as if the disk was brand new; there is no attempt to preserve information that is already on the disk. The operating system and applications will be installed fresh. Any data files that are required must have been transferred to another disk for storage and will be copied back later.

The disk must first be partitioned and formatted. This is similar to preparing a large garden plot. Partitioning is similar to laying out footpaths and ditches for irrigation and drainage. This defines the size and shape of your garden. Formatting is similar to laying out rows or beds. These are sized according to the crops that you wish to plant. The following equipment is required for this exercise; A computer with a blank hard disk drive and Windows XP Professional installation CD. Using the typical settings increases the likelihood of a successful installation.

However, the user must still provide the following information during the setup: Standards and formats that define currency and numerals Text input language Name of the user and company Product key Computer name Administrator password Date and time settings Network settings Domain or workgroup information When a computer boots up with the Windows installation CD, the Windows XP installation process starts with three options: Setup XP: To run the setup and install the XP operating system, press ENTER.

For this section, use the Setup XP setting. The default administrator account is named "administrator". For security purposes, change this name as soon as possible. This privileged account should only be used to manage the computer. It should not be used as a daily account. People have accidentally made drastic changes while using the administrator account instead of a regular user account. Attackers seek out the administrative account because it is so powerful.

Create a user account when prompted during the installation process Unlike the administrator account, user accounts can be created at any time. A user account has fewer permissions than the computer administrator.

For example, users may have the right to read, but not modify, a file. Teaching Strategy: Another common practice is to rename the default administrator account and then create a normal user account named administrator. The default administrator account cannot be deleted or locked out after multiple failed passwords like a normal user account. By recreating the account you can protect the system against attempts on the administrator account since the recreated account will lock out after multiple failed attempts.

You must register Windows XP. You must also complete the verification that ensures that you are using a legal copy of the OS. Doing so will enable you to download patches and service packs. Performing this step requires a connection to the Internet.

Depending on the age of the media at the time of your installation, there may be updates to install. A yellow exclamation point represents a problem with the device. To view the problem description, right-click the device and select Properties. To enable the device, right-click the disabled device and select Enable. If you choose to send the report, then Microsoft Windows error reporting WER collects information about the application and the module involved in the error and sends the information to Microsoft.

To complete this lab, students will create user accounts and configure the operating system for automatic updates after the Windows XP Professional installation process. The following equipment is required for this exercise; A computer with a new installation of Windows XP Professional. Installing an operating system on one computer at a time can be a time-intensive activity. To simplify this activity, you can use the Microsoft System Preparation Sysprep tool to install and configure the same operating system on multiple computers.

Sysprep prepares an operating system that will be used on computers with different hardware configurations. With Sysprep and a disk cloning application, technicians are able to quickly install an operating system, complete the last configuration steps for the OS setup, and install applications.

Disk Cloning creates an image of a hard drive in a computer. Follow these steps for disk cloning: Create a master installation on one computer. This master installation includes the operating system, software applications, and configuration settings that will be used by the other computers in the organization. Run Sysprep. Create a disk image of the configured computer using a third-party disk- cloning program. Copy the disk image onto a server. When the destination computer is booted, a shortened version of the Windows setup program runs.

The setup will create a new system security identifier SID , install drivers for hardware, create user accounts, and configure network settings to finish the OS install. Understanding these steps can help you to troubleshoot boot problems. The computer performs the power-on self test POST.

Because the video adapter has not yet been initialized, any errors that occur at this point in the boot process will be reported by a series of audible tones, called beep-codes. This configuration setting is the order in which devices will be tried to see if an operating system is located there. The BIOS boots the computer using the first drive that contains an operating system. The MBR locates the operating system boot loader.

INI gives the user a chance to select which to use. INI gives the user a chance to select which one to use. COM to get information about installed hardware. INI to find the boot partition. Teaching Strategy: A common source of NTLDR errors is from users leaving a non-bootable floppy disk or flash drive in the computer and the computer tries to boot from it. Every setting in Windows—from the background of the desktop and the color of the screen buttons to the licensing of applications—is stored in the Registry.

When a user makes changes to the Control Panel settings, File Associations, System Policies, or installed software, the changes are stored in the Registry. Each user has a unique section of the Registry. The Windows login process pulls system settings from the Registry to reconfigure the system to the state that it was in the last time that you turned it on. Refer to the previous slide. EXE and displays the XP welcome screen. SYS file during installation. This file will not be copied if SCSI drives are not being used.

The following applications are used extensively for post-installation modifications:: Msconfig: This boot configuration utility allows you to set the programs that will run at startup and to edit configuration files. It also offers simplified control over Windows Services. Slide 33 - Manipulating Operating System Files 5. EXE command. EXE; both commands run the same program. EXE incorrectly may cause configuration problems that could require you to reinstall the operating system.

Safe Mode — Starts Windows but only loads drivers for basic components, such as the keyboard and display. Last Known Good Configuration — Enables a user to load the configurations settings of Windows that was used the last time that Windows successfully started. It does this by accessing a copy of the registry that is created for this purpose. Slide 34 - Manipulating Operating System Files 5. Pressing the F8 key during the boot process opens the Windows Advanced Startup Options menu, which allows you to select how to boot Windows.

The following startup options are commonly used: Safe Mode — Starts Windows but only loads drivers for basic components, such as the keyboard and display. It does this by accessing a copy of the registry that is created for this purpose NOTE: Last Known Good Configuration is not useful unless it is applied immediately after the failure occurs.

If the machine is restarted and, despite its difficulties, manages to open Windows, the registry key for Last Known Good Configuration will probably be updated with the faulty information. Next, there is an initial set of standardized directories, called folders, for the operating system, applications, configuration information, and data files.

Following the initial installation, users can install most applications and data in whatever directory they choose. Files in the directory structure adhere to a Windows naming convention: Maximum of characters may be used Characters such as a period. The following are the most common file attributes: R - The file is read-only A - The file will be archived the next backup S - The file is marked as a system file and a warning is given if an attempt is made to delete or modify the file H - The file is hidden in the directory display Slide 36 - Describing Directory Structures 5.

The following are the most common file attributes: R - The file is read-only. A - The file will be archived the next time that the disk is backed up. S - The file is marked as a system file and a warning is given if an attempt is made to delete or modify the file. H - The file is hidden in the directory display. The attributes of each file will appear in the left column of the screen. Security is one of the most important differences between these file systems. EXE utility. Doing this will provide the extra security advantages of NTFS.

There are two methods that you can use to navigate the file system and run applications within an operating system: A Graphical User Interface GUI provides graphical representations icons of all of the files, folders, and programs on a computer. You manipulate these icons using a pointer that is controlled with a mouse or similar device.

The pointer allows you to move icons by dragging and dropping, and execute programs by clicking. You must type commands to manipulate files and execute programs. After completing this section, students will meet these objectives: Manipulate items on the desktop Explore Control Panel applets Explore administrative tools Install, navigate, and uninstall an application Describe upgrading operating systems.

A desktop on a computer is a graphical representation of a workspace. The desktop has icons, toolbars, and menus to manipulate files. The desktop can be customized with images, sounds, and colors to provide a more personalized look and feel. To customize the desktop settings, right-click the desktop and choose Properties.

Click any of these tabs to customize your display settings. There are several items on the desktop that can be customized, such as the Taskbar and Recycle Bin. To customize any item, right-click the item and then choose Properties. The Start menu displays all of the applications installed in the computer, a list of recently opened documents, and a listing of other elements, such as a search feature, help center, and system settings.

The Start menu can also be customized. There are two styles of Start menu: XP and Classic. The XP-style Start menu will be used throughout this course for demonstrating command sequences. To customize certain settings, right-click My Computer and choose Properties. Settings that can be customized include the following: Computer name Hardware settings Virtual memory Automatic updates Remote access.

Connect to or disconnect from a network drive Right-click Properties to configure existing network connections, such as a wired or wireless LAN connection Slide 43 — Launching Applications 5. Double-click the application shortcut icon on the desktop. Double-click the application executable file in My Computer.

Launch the application from the Run window or command line. To view and configure network connections, right-click the My Network Places icon on the desktop. In My Network Places, you can connect to or disconnect from a network drive. Click Properties to configure existing network connections, such as a wired or wireless LAN connection. Student Activity: The student course content includes the lab, Run Commands.

The following equipment is required for this exercise; a computer system running Windows XP. These settings are categorized in applets, or small programs, found in the Control Panel. Adding or removing programs, changing network settings, and changing the security settings are some of the configuration options available in the Control Panel. The names of various applets in the Control Panel differ slightly depending on the version of Windows installed.

Change the appearance of the desktop by modifying the resolution and color quality. The Task Manager allows you to monitor the performance of the CPU and virtual memory, view all processes that are currently running, and view information about the network connections. These log files are a valuable troubleshooting tool. Remote Desktop Allows one computer to remotely take control of another computer.

This troubleshooting feature is only available with Windows XP Professional. Slide 48 — Event Viewer and Remote Desktop 5. There are many different settings that can be configured in the Windows operating system. These settings can all be accessed through the Control Panel. Most applications use an automatic installation process when an application CD is inserted in the optical drive.

The installation process updates the Add or Remove Programs utility. The user is required to click through the installation wizard and provide information when requested. Add or Remove Programs Applet Microsoft recommends that users always use the Add or Remove Programs utility, when installing or removing applications. When you use the Add or Remove Programs utility to install an application, the utility tracks installation files so that the application can be uninstalled completely, if desired.

Add an Application If a program or application is not automatically installed when the CD is inserted, you can use the Add or Remove Programs applet to install the application. Click on the Add New Programs button and select the location where the application is located. Windows will install the application for you. Once the application is installed, the application can be started from the Start menu or a shortcut icon that the application installs on the desktop.

Check the application to ensure that it is functioning properly. If there are problems with the application, make the repair or uninstall the application. Some applications, such as Microsoft Office, provide a repair option in the install process. You can use this function to try to correct a program that is not working properly. Uninstall an Application If an application is not uninstalled properly, you may be leaving files on the hard drive and unnecessary settings in the registry.

Although this may not cause any problems, it depletes available hard drive space, system resources, and the speed at which the registry is read. Use the Add or Remove Programs applet to uninstall programs that you no longer need. The wizard will guide you through the software removal process and remove everything that was installed. To complete this lab, students will install and remove a third party software application by using the Microsoft Windows XP Professional Installation CD.

Before upgrading the operating system, check the minimum requirements of the new operating system to ensure that the computer meets the minimum specifications required. You should also check the HCL to ensure that the hardware is compatible with the operating system.

Back up all data before upgrading the operating system in case there is a problem with the installation. The process of upgrading a computer system from Windows to Windows XP is quicker than performing a new installation of Windows XP.

However, the existing applications and settings will be saved. The License Agreement page displays. Read the license agreement and click the button to accept this agreement. Click Next. Follow the prompts and complete the upgrade. When the install is complete, the computer will restart. After completing this section, the students will meet these objectives: Create a preventive maintenance plan Schedule a task Backup the hard drive 5. You should perform preventive maintenance regularly, and you should also record all actions taken and observations made.

Some preventative maintenance should take place when it will cause the least amount of disruption to the people who use the computers. This often means scheduling tasks at night, early in the morning, or over the weekend. There are tools and techniques that can automate many preventive maintenance tasks. Preventive maintenance plans should include detailed information about the maintenance of all computers and network equipment, with emphasis on equipment that could impact the organization the most.

Preventive maintenance includes the following important tasks: Updates to the operating system and applications Updates to anti-virus and other protective software Hard drive error checking Hard drive backup Hard drive defragmentation A preventive maintenance program that is designed to fix things before they break, and to solve small problems before they affect productivity, can provide the following benefits to users and organizations: Decreased downtime Improved performance Improved reliability Decreased repair costs An additional part of preventive maintenance is documentation.

A repair log will help you to figure out which equipment is the most or least reliable. It will also provide a history of when a computer was last fixed, how it was fixed, and what the problem was. Defrag: Gathers the noncontiguous data into one place, making files run faster Slide 54 - Schedule Tasks Schedule a task Some preventive maintenance consists of cleaning, inspecting, and doing minor repairs.

Some preventive maintenance uses application tools that are either already in the operating system or can be loaded onto the user's hard drive. Most preventive maintenance applications can be set to run automatically according to a schedule. Windows has the following utilities that will launch tasks when you schedule them: The DOS AT command launches tasks at a specified time using the command line interface.

The Windows Task Scheduler will launch tasks at a specified time using a graphical user interface. The Windows Task Scheduler is easier to learn and use than the AT command, especially when it comes to recurring tasks and deleting tasks already scheduled.

There are several utilities included with DOS and Windows that help maintain system integrity. Consider using them at least once a month and also whenever a sudden loss of power causes the system to shut down. Defrag - As files increase in size, some data is written to the next available space on the disk.

In time, data becomes fragmented, or spread all over the hard drive. It takes time to seek each section of the data. Defrag gathers the noncontiguous data into one place, making files run faster. Automatic update services can setup to download and install updates as soon as they are available or as required, and install them when the computer is next rebooted. Slide 55 - Automatic Updates Schedule a task If every maintenance task had to be scheduled every time it was run, repairing computers would be much harder than it is today.

Fortunately, tools such as the Scheduled Task Wizard allow many functions to be automated. But how can you automate the update of software that has not been written? Operating systems and applications are constantly being updated for security purposes and for added functionality. It is important that Microsoft and others provide an update service. The update service can scan the system for needed updates and then recommend what should be downloaded and installed.

The update service can download and install updates as soon as they are available, or it can download updates as required, and install them when the computer is next rebooted. This is normally done automatically but it can be done manually at Many times if updates are not applying correctly it maybe necessary to manually validate Windows. Most anti-virus software contains its own update facility. It can update both its application software and its database files automatically.

This allows it to provide immediate protection as new threats develop. If the computer crashes, the OS can roll back to a restore point. The restore point utility only operates on OS and application files. Anti-virus software should be run to remove malware before creating a restore point. When to create a restore point: Before updating or replacing the OS When an application or driver is installed Manually at any time Slide 56 - Restore Point Schedule a task An update can sometimes causes serious problems.

Perhaps an older program is in the system that is not compatible with the current operating system. An automatic update may install code that will work for most users but does not work with your system. Windows Restore Point is the solution for this problem. Windows XP can create an image of the current computer settings, called a restore point.

Then, if the computer crashes, or an update causes system problems, the computer can roll back to a previous configuration. A technician should always create a restore point before updating or replacing the operating system. Restore points should also be created at the following times: When an application is installed When a driver is installed NOTE: A restore point backs up drivers, system files, and registry settings but not application data.

A recovery CD contains the essential files used to repair the system after a serious issue, such as a hard drive crash. The recovery CD can contain the original version of Windows, hardware drivers, and application software. When the recovery CD is used, the computer will be restored to the original default configuration. NOTE: Anti-virus software should be run to remove malware before creating a restore point.

Student Activity: The student course content includes the lab, Restore Point. To complete this lab, students will create a restore point and return the computer back to that point in time. Use the Microsoft Backup Tool to perform backups. Establish a backup strategy that will allow for the recovery of data. Decide how often the data must be backed up and the type of backup to perform. Windows XP uses Volume Shadow Copying, which allows users to continue to work even as a backup is taking place.

It is only necessary to make copies of the files that have changed since the last backup. Slide 57 - Backup the Hard Drive 5. You can use the Microsoft Backup Tool to perform backups as required. It is important to establish a backup strategy that includes data recovery. It can take a long time to run a backup. If the backup strategy is followed carefully, it will not be necessary to backup every file at every backup. For this reason, there are several different types of backup.

During a normal backup, all selected files on the disk are archived to the backup medium. These files are marked as having been archived. A copy backup will copy all selected files. It does not mark the files as having been archived. A differential backup backs up all the files and folders that have been created or modified since the last normal backup or the last incremental backup. The differential backup does not mark the files as having been archived.

Copies will be made from the same starting point until the next incremental or full backup is performed. Making differential backups is important because only the last full and differential backups are needed to restore all the data. An incremental backup procedure backs up all the files and folders that have been created or modified since the last normal or incremental backup.

It marks the files as having been archived. This has the effect of advancing the starting point of differential backups without having to re-archive the entire contents of the drive. If you have to perform a system restore, you would have to first restore the last full backup, then restore every incremental backup in order, and then restore any differential backups made since the last incremental backup.

Daily backups only back up the files that are modified on the day of the backup. Daily backups do not mark the files as being archived. There are many types of backup media available for computers: Tape drives are devices that are used for data backup on a network server drive. Tape drives are an inexpensive way to store a large amount of data. Digital Linear Tape DLT technology offers high-capacity and relatively high-speed tape backup capabilities.

USB flash memory can hold hundreds of times the data that a floppy disk can hold. USB flash memory devices are available in many capacities and offer better transfer rates than tape devices. To complete this lab, students will back up a computer registry and perform a recovery of a computer registry.

These utilities help a technician to determine why the computer crashes or does not boot properly. The utilities also help identify the problem and how to resolve it. Follow the steps outlined in this section to accurately identify, repair, and document the problem. After completing this section, students will meet these objectives Review the troubleshooting process.

Identify common problems and solutions. Gather Data from the Customer Customer information Company name, contact name, address, phone number Computer configuration Operating system, patches and updates, network environment, connection type Use a work order to collect information Description of problem Open-ended questions What were you doing when the problem was identified?

Closed-ended questions Are you currently logged into your network? Slide 60 — 1. Gather Data from the Customer Review the troubleshooting process The first step in the troubleshooting process is to gather data from the customer. Networking Academy students have the opportunity to participate in a powerful and consistent learning experience that is supported by high quality, online curricula and assessments, instructor training, hands-on labs, and classroom interaction.

This experience ensures the same level of qualifications and skills regardless of where in the world a student is located. Networking Academy students will become the architects of the networked economy; enabling everyday experiences on the global human network. With the ever-increasing demand for their skills, Networking Academy students have the chance to dream about business-critical positions never before imagined, in industries ranging from medicine and finance to entertainment and aerospace.

Networking Academy opens doors to rewarding careers and opportunities for economic advancement and local community development. It is intended for individuals who want to pursue careers in IT and gain practical knowledge of how a computer works.

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Ask your instructor for access to Packet Tracer. Labirint Ozon. Cisco Networking Academy. The features of the Companion Guide are designed to help you study and succeed in this course: n Chapter objectives —Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter. Advanced Networks Chapter 16 Advanced Security.

Answers to Check Your Understanding. The Academy provides online courses, interactive tools, and lab activities to prepare individuals for information technology and networking careers in virtually every industry. The features of the Companion Guide are designed to help you study and succeed in this course: -- Chapter objectives —Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.

Cisco Networking Academy is an innovative Cisco education initiative that delivers information and communication technology skills to improve career and economic opportunities around the world. The Academy provides online courses, interactive tools, and lab activities to prepare individuals for information technology and networking careers in virtually every industry. Reviews Review policy and info. Published on. Flowing text, Original pages. Best for. Content protection.

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